# Electrical Q&A Part-4

1)    What value AC meters show, is it the RMS or peak voltage?

• AC voltmeters and ammeters show the RMS value of the voltage or current. DC meters also show the RMS value when connected to varying DC providing the DC is varying quickly, if the frequency is less than about 10Hz you will see the meter reading fluctuating instead.

2)    Why in the transmission tower construction Middle arm is longer than the upper and lower Arm.

• Conductor of Upper Arm and Lower Arm will stay apart.
• To prevent big birds (Ostriches etc) from bumping their heads against the conductor above when they sit on the wire below.
• Designed to maintain the mechanical requirement to prevent arching between conductors while maintaining a tower height that is manageable, and of course preventing head injuries to birds
• The arms are of different links to prevent a broken upper line from falling on one or more of the phase lines below.
• The clearance from other phase.
• Mutual inductance minimization.
• Preventing droplet of water/ice to fall on bottom conductor.

3)    What is the difference between Surge Arrester & Lightning Arrestor

• LA is installed outside and the effect of lightning is grounded, where as surge arrestor installed inside panels comprising of resistors which consumes the energy and nullify the effect of surge.
• Transmission Line Lightning Protection:
• The transmission line towers would normally be higher than a substation structure, unless you have a multi-storey structure at your substation.
• Earth Mats are essential in all substation areas, along with driven earth electrodes (unless in a dry sandy desert site).
• It is likewise normal to run catenaries’ (aerial earth conductors) for at least 1kM out from all substation structures. Those earth wires to be properly electrically to each supporting transmission tower, and bonded back to the substation earth system.
• It is important to have the catenaries’ earth conductors above the power conductor lines, at a sufficient distance and position that a lightning strike will not hit the power conductors.
• In some cases it is thus an advantage to have two catenary earth conductors, one each side of the transmission tower as they protect the power lines below in a better manner.
• In lightning-prone areas it is often necessary to have catenary earthing along the full distance of the transmission line.
• Without specifics, (and you could not presently give tower pictures in a Post because of a CR4 Server graphics upload problem), specifics would include:
• Structure Lightning Protection:
• At the Substation, it is normal to have vertical electrodes bonded to the structure, and projecting up from the highest points of the structure, with the location and number of those electrodes to be sufficient that if a lightning strike arrived, it would always be a vertical earthed electrode which would be struck, rather than any electrical equipment.
• In some older outdoor substation structures, air-break isolator switches are often at a very high point in the structure, and in those cases small structure extension towers are installed, with electrodes at the tapered peak of those extension towers.
• The extension towers are normally 600mm square approximately until the extension tower changes shape at the tapered peak, and in some cases project upwards from the general structure 2 to 6 metres, with the electrode some 2 to 3 metres projecting upwards from the top of the extension tower.
• The substation normally has a Lightning Counter – which registers a strike on the structure or connected  to earth conductors, and the gathering of that information (Lightning Days, number per Day/Month/Year, Amperage of each strike)

4)    How Corona Discharge Effect Occur in Transmission Line?

• In a power system transmission lines are used to carry the power. These transmission lines are separated by certain spacing which is large in comparison to their diameters.
• In Extra High Voltage system (EHV system ) when potential difference is applied across the power conductors in transmission lines then air medium present between the phases of the power conductors acts as insulator medium however the air surrounding the conductor subjects to electro static stresses. When the potential increases still further then the atoms present around the conductor starts ionize. Then the ions produced in this process repel with each other and attracts towards the conductor at high velocity which intern produces other ions by collision.
• The ionized air surrounding the conductor acts as a virtual conductor and increases the effective diameter of the power conductor. Further increase in the potential difference in the transmission lines then a faint luminous glow of violet color appears together along with hissing noise. This phenomenon is called virtual corona and followed by production of ozone gas which can be detected by the odor. Still further increase in the potential between the power conductors makes the insulating medium present between the power conductors to start conducting and reaches a voltage (Critical Breakdown Voltage) where the insulating air medium acts as conducting medium results in breakdown of the insulating medium and flash over is observed. All this above said phenomenon constitutes CORONA DISCHARGE EFFECT in electrical Transmission lines.

5)    Methods to reduce Corona Discharge Effect:

• Critical Breakdown voltage can be increased by following factors
• By increasing the spacing between the conductors:
• Corona Discharge Effect can be reduced by increasing the clearance spacing between the phases of the transmission lines. However increase in the phases results in heavier metal supports. Cost and Space requirement increases.
• By increasing the diameter of the conductor:
• Diameter of the conductor can be increased to reduce the corona discharge effect. By using hollow conductors corona discharge effect can be improved.
• By using Bundled Conductors:
• By using Bundled Conductors also corona effect can be reduced this is because bundled conductors will have much higher effective diameter compared to the normal conductors.
• By Using Corona Rings or Grading Rings:
• This is of having no greater significance but i presented here to understand the Corona Ring in the Power system. Corona Rings or Grading Rings are present on the surge arresters to equally distribute the potential along the Surge Arresters or Lightning Arresters which are present near the Substation and in the Transmission lines.

6)    How to test insulators?

• Always remember to practice safety procedures for the flash-over voltage distance and use a sturdy enclosure to contain an insulator that may shatter, due to steam build-up from moisture in a cavity, arcing produces intense heat, an AM radio is a good RFI/arcing detection device, a bucket truck AC dielectric test set (130KV) is a good test set for most pin and cap type insulators. A recent article said the DC voltage required to “search out defects can be 1.9 times the AC voltage.
• Insulators have a normal operating voltage and a flash-over voltage. Insulators can have internal flash-over that are/are not present at normal operating voltage. If the RFI is present, de-energize the insulator (line) and if the RFI goes away, suspect the insulator (line). Then there can be insulators that have arcing start when capacitor or other transients happen, stop when the line is de-energized or dropped below 50% of arc ignition voltage. Using a meg-ohm-meter can eliminate defective insulators that will immediately arc-over tripping the test set current overload.

7)    How to identify the starting and ending leads of winding in a motor which is having 6 leads in the      terminal box

• If it is a single speed motor then we have to identify 6 leads.
• Use IR tester to identify 3 windings and their 6 leads. Then connect any two leads of two winding and apply small voltage across it and measure the current.
• Then again connect alternate windings of same two windings and apply small amount of voltage (same as before) and measure current.
• Check in which mode you get the max current and then mark it as a1-a2 & b1-b2. You get max current when a2-b1 will be connected and voltage applied between a1-b2.
• Follow the same process to identify a1-a2, b1-b2, c1-c2.now we will be able to connect it in delta or star.

8)    How to measure Transformer Impedance?

• (1) Short the secondary side of the transformer with current measuring devices (Ammeter)
• (2) Apply low voltage in primary side and increase the voltage so that the secondary current is the rated secondary current of the transformer. Measure the primary voltage (V1).
• (3) Divide the V1 by the rated primary voltage of the transformer and multiply by 100. This value is the percentage impedance of the transformer.
• When we divide the primary voltage V1 with the full load voltage we will get the short circuit impedance of the transformer with refereed to primary or Z01. For getting the percentage impedance we need to use the formula = Z01*Transformer MVA /(Square of Primary line voltage).

9)    Why Bus Couplers are normally 4-Pole. Or When Neutral Isolation is required?

• Neutral Isolation is mandatory when you have a Mains Supply Source and a Stand-by Power Supply Source. This is necessary because if you do not have neutral isolation and the neutrals of both the sources are linked, then when only one source is feeding and the other source is OFF, during an earth fault, the potential of the OFF Source’s Neutral with respect to earth will increase, which might harm any maintenance personnel working on the OFF source. It is for this reason that PCC Incomers & Bus Couplers are normally 4-Pole. (Note that only either the incomer or the bus coupler needs to be 4-pole and not both).
• 3pole or 4pole switches are used in changing over two independant sources ,where the neutral of one source and the neutral of another source should not mix the examples are electricity board power supply and standalone generator supply etc. the neutral return current from one source should not mix with or return to another source. as a mandatory point the neutral of any transformer etc are to be earthed, similarly the neutral of a generator also has to be earthed. While paralling (under uncontrolled condition) the neutral current between the 2 sources will crises cross and create tripping of anyone source breakers.
• also as per IEC standard the neutral of a distribution system shall not be earthed more than once. means earthing the neutral further downstream is not correct,

10) Why Three No’s of Current transformer in 3 phase Star point is grounded.

• For CT’s either you use for 3 phase or 2 phase or even if you use only 1 CT’s for the Over current Protection or for the Earth Faults Protection, their neutral point is always shorted to earth. This is NOT as what you explain as above but actually it is for the safety of the CT’s when the current is passing thru the CT’s.
• In generally, tripping of Earth faults and Over current Protection has nothing to do with the earthing the neutral of the CT’s. Even these CT’s are not Grounded or Earthed, these Over current and the Earth Faults Protection Relay still can operated.
• Operating of the Over current Protection and the Earth Faults Relays are by the Kirchhoff Law Principle where the total current flowing into the points is equal to the total of current flowing out from the point.
• Therefore, for the earth faults protection relays operating, it is that, if the total current flowing in to the CT’s is NOT equal total current flowing back out of the CT’s then with the differences of the leakage current, the Earth Faults Relays will operated.

11) What is tertiary winding of Transformer?

• Providing a tertiary winding for a transformer may be a costly affair. However, there are certain constraints in a system which calls for a tertiary transformer winding especially in the case of considerable harmonic levels in the distribution system. Following is an excerpt from the book “The J&P Transformer Book”.
• Tertiary winding is may be used for any of the following purposes:
• (A)To limit the fault level on the LV system by subdividing the infeed that is, double secondary transformers.
• (B)The interconnection of several power systems operating at different supply voltages.
• (C) The regulation of system voltage and of reactive power by means of a synchronous capacitor connected to the terminals of one winding.
• It is desirable that a three-phase transformer should have one set of three-phase windings connected in delta thus providing a low-impedance path for third-harmonic currents. The presence of a delta connected winding also allows current to circulate around the delta in the event of unbalance in the loading between phases, so that this unbalance is reduced and not so greatly fed back through the system.
• Since the third-order harmonic components in each phase of a three-phase system are in phase, there can be no third-order harmonic voltages between lines. The third-order harmonic component of the magnetising current must thus flow through the neutral of a star-connected winding, where the neutral of the supply and the star-connected winding are both earthed, or around any delta-connected winding. If there is no delta winding on a star/star transformer, or the neutral of the transformer and the supply are not both connected to earth, then line to earth capacitance currents in the supply system lines can supply the necessary harmonic component. If the harmonics cannot flow in any of these paths then the output voltage will contain the harmonic distortion.
• Even if the neutral of the supply and the star-connected winding are both earthed, then although the transformer output waveform will be undistorted, the circulating third-order harmonic currents flowing in the neutral can cause interference with telecommunications circuits and other electronic equipment as well as unacceptable heating in any liquid neutral earthing resistors, so this provides an added reason for the use of a delta connected tertiary winding.
• If the neutral of the star-connected winding is unearthed then, without the use of a delta tertiary, this neutral point can oscillate above and below earth at a voltage equal in magnitude to the third-order harmonic component. Because the use of a delta tertiary prevents this it is sometimes referred to as a stabilizing winding.
• When specifying a transformer which is to have a tertiary the intending purchaser should ideally provide sufficient information to enable the transformer designer to determine the worst possible external fault currents that may flow in service. This information (which should include the system characteristics and details of the earthing arrangements) together with a knowledge of the impedance values between the various windings, will permit an accurate assessment to be made of the fault currents and of the magnitude of currents that will flow in the tertiary winding. This is far preferable to the purchaser arbitrarily specifying a rating of, say, 33.3%, of that of the main windings.

12) Why do transformers hum?

• Transformer noise is caused by a phenomenon which causes a piece of magnetic sheet steel to extend itself when magnetized. When the magnetization is taken away, it goes back to its original condition. This phenomenon is scientifically referred to as magnetostriction.
• A transformer is magnetically excited by an alternating voltage and current so that it becomes extended and contracted twice during a full cycle of magnetization. The magnetization of any given point on the sheet varies, so the extension and contraction is not uniform. A transformer core is made from many sheets of special steel to reduce losses and moderate the ensuing heating effect.
• The extensions and contractions are taking place erratically all over a sheet and each sheet is behaving erratically with respect to its neighbour, so you can see what a moving, writhing construction it is when excited. These extensions are miniscule proportionally and therefore not normally visible to the naked eye. However, they are sufficient to cause a vibration, and consequently noise. Applying voltage to a transformer produces a magnetic flux, or magnetic lines of force in the core. The degree of flux determines the amount of magnetostriction and hence, the noise level Why not reduce the noise in the core by reducing the amount of flux? Transformer voltages are fixed by system requirements. The ratio of these voltages to the number of turns in the winding determines the amount of magnetization. This ratio of voltage to turns is determined mainly for economical soundness. Therefore the amount of flux at the normal voltage is fixed. This also fixes the level of noise and vibration. Also, increasing (or decreasing) magnetization does not affect the magnetostriction equivalently. In technical terms the relationship is not linear.

13) How can we reduce airborne noise?

• Put the transformer in a room in which the walls and floor are massive enough to reduce the noise to a person listening on the other side. Noise is usually reduced (attenuated) as it tries to pass through a massive wall. Walls can be of brick, steel, concrete, lead, or most other dense building materials.
• Put the object inside an enclosure which uses a limp wall technique. This is a method which uses two thin plates separated by viscous (rubbery) material. As the noise hits the inner sheet some of its energy is used up inside the viscous material. The outer sheet should not vibrate.
• Build a screen wall around the unit. This is cheaper than a full room. It will reduce the noise to those near the wall, but the noise will get over the screen and fall elsewhere (at a lower level). Screens have been made from wood, concrete, brick and with dense bushes (although the latter becomes psychological)
• Do not make any reflecting surface coincident with half the wave length of the frequency. What does this mean? Well, every frequency has a wave length. To find the wave length in air, for instance, you divide the speed of sound, in air (generally understood as 1130 feet per second) by the frequency. If a noise hits a reflecting surface at these dimensions it will produce what is called a standing wave. Standing waves will cause reverberations (echoes) and an increase in the sound level. If you hit these dimensions and get echoes you should apply absorbent materials to the offending walls (fibreglass, wool, etc.)

14) What is polarity, when associated with a transformer?

• Polarity is the instantaneous voltage obtained from the primary winding in relation to the secondary winding. Transformers 600 volts and below are normally connected in additive polarity. This leaves one high voltage and one low voltage terminal unconnected. When the transformer is excited, the resultant voltage appearing across a voltmeter will be the sum of the high and low voltage windings. This is useful when connecting single phase transformers in parallel for three phase operations. Polarity is a term used only with single phase transformers.

15) What is exciting current?

• Exciting current is the current or amperes required for excitation. The exciting current on most lighting and power transformers varies from approximately 10% on small sizes of about 1 KVA and less to approximately 2% on larger sizes of 750 KVA.

16) Can a three phase transformer be loaded as a single phase transformer?

• Yes, but the load cannot exceed the rating per phase and the load must be balanced. (KVA/3 per phase)
• For example: A 75 kVA 3 phase transformer can be loaded up to 25 kVA on each secondary. If you need a 30 kVA load, 10 kVA of load should be supplied from each secondary.

17) What are taps and when are they used?

• Taps are provided on some transformers on the high voltage winding to correct for high or low voltage conditions, and still deliver full rated output voltages at the secondary terminals.
• Standard tap arrangements are at two-and-one-half and five percent of the rated primary voltage for both high and low voltage conditions.
• For example, if the transformer has a 480 volt primary and the available line voltage is running at 504 volts, the primary should be connected to the 5% tap above normal in order that the secondary voltage be maintained at the proper rating.

18) What is the difference between “Insulating,” “Isolating,”and“Shielded Winding” transformers?

• Insulating and isolating transformers are identical. These terms are used to describe the isolation of the primary and secondary windings, or insulation between the two.
•  A shielded transformer is designed with a metallic shield between the primary and secondary windings to attenuate transient noise.
• This is especially important in critical applications such as computers, process controllers and many other microprocessor controlled devices.
•  All two, three and four winding transformers are of the insulating or isolating types. Only autotransformers, whose primary and secondary are connected to each other electrically, are not of the insulating or isolating variety.

19) Can transformers be operated at voltages other than nameplate voltages?

• In some cases, transformers can be operated at voltages below the nameplate rated voltage.
•  In NO case should a transformer be operated at a voltage in excess of its nameplate rating, unless taps are provided for this purpose. When operating below the rated voltage, the KVA capacity is reduced correspondingly.
• For example, if a 480 volt primary transformer with a 240 volt secondary is operated at 240 volts, the secondary voltage is reduced to 120 volts. If the transformer was originally rated 10 KVA, the reduced rating would be 5 KVA, or in direct proportion to the applied voltage.

20) Can a Single Phase Transformer be used on a Three Phase source?

• Yes. Any single phase transformer can be used on a three phase source by connecting the primary leads to any two wires of a three phase system, regardless of whether the source is three phase 3-wire or three phase 4-wire. The transformer output will be single phase.

21) Can Transformers develop Three Phase power from a Single Phase source?

• No. Phase converters or phase shifting devices such as reactors and capacitors are required to convert single phase power to three phases.

22) Can Single Phase Transformers be used for Three Phase applications?

• Yes. Three phase transformers are sometimes not readily available whereas single phase transformers can generally be found in stock.
• Three single phase transformers can be used in delta connected primary and wye or delta connected secondary. They should never be connected wye primary to wye secondary, since this will result in unstable secondary voltage. The equivalent three phase capacity when properly connected of three single phase transformers is three times the nameplate rating of each single phase transformer. For example: Three 10 KVA single phase transformers will accommodate a 30 KVA three phase load

23) Difference between Restricted Earth Fault & Unrestricted Earth Fault protections?

• Restricted earth fault is normally given to on star connected end of power equipment like generators, transformers etc. mostly on low voltage side. For REF protection 4 no’s CTs are using one each on phase and one in neutral. It is working on the principle of balanced currents between phases and neutral. Unrestricted E/F protection working on the principle of comparing the unbalance on the phases only. For REF protection PX class CT are using but for UREF 5P20 Cts using.
• For Differential Protection CTs using on both side HT & LV side each phase, and comparing the unbalance current for this protection also PX class CTs are using.

24) Can transformers be operated at voltages other than nameplate voltages?

• In some cases, transformers can be operated at voltages below the nameplate rated voltage. In NO case should a transformer be operated in excess of its nameplate rating unless taps are provided for this purpose. When operating below the rated voltage the KVA capacity is reduced correspondingly.

25) How many types of cooling system it transformers?

• ONAN (oil natural,air natural)
• ONAF (oil natural,air forced)
• OFAF (oil forced,air forced)
• ODWF (oil direct,water forced)
• OFAN (oil forced,air natural)

26) What is the function of anti-pumping in circuit breaker?

• when breaker is close at one time by close push button, the anti pumping contactor prevent re close the breaker by close push button after if it already close.

27) There are a Transformer and an induction machine. Those two have the same supply. For which device the load current will be maximum?

• The motor has max load current compare to that of transformer because the motor consumes real power.. and the transformer is only producing the working flux and it’s not consuming. Hence the load current in the transformer is because of core loss so it is minimum.

28) Where the lighting arrestor should be placed in distribution lines?

• Near distribution transformers and out going feeders of 11kv and incoming feeder of 33kv and near power transformers in sub-stations.

29) Why Delta Star Transformers are used for Lighting Loads?

• For lighting loads, neutral conductor is must and hence the secondary must be star winding. and this lighting load is always unbalanced in all three phases.
• To minimize the current unbalance in the primary we use delta winding in the primary. So delta / star transformer is used for lighting loads.

30) NGR grounded system vs. solidly grounded system

• In India, at low voltage level (433V) we must do only Solid Earthing of the system neutral. This is by IE Rules 1956, Rule No. 61 (1) (a).Because, if we have opt for impedance earthing, during an earth fault, there will be appreciable voltage present between the faulted body & the neutral, the magnitude of this voltage being determined by the fault current magnitude and the impedance value.
• This voltage might circulate enough current in a person accidentally coming in contact with the faulted equipment, as to harm his even causing death. Note that, LV systems can be handled by non-technical persons too.
• In solid earthing, you do not have this problem, as at the instant of an earth fault, the faulted phase goes to neutral potential and the high fault current would invariably cause the Over current or short circuit protection device to operate in sufficiently quick time before any harm could be done.

31) Why Do not We Break Neutral in AC Circuits?

• Neutral is connected to earth at some point, thus it has some value as a return path in the event of say and equipment earth being faulty. It’s a bit like asking ‘why don’t we break the Earth connection’
• It was stupid and dangerous, as it was possible for the neutral fuse to blow; giving the appearance of ‘no power’ when in fact the equipment was still live.

32) What is Minimum Value of Insulation Resistance / Polarization Index?

• Motor Insulation Resistance:
• The acceptable meg-ohm value = motor KV rating value + 1 (For LV and MV Motor).
• Example, for a 5 KV motor, the minimum phase to ground (motor body) insulation is 5 + 1 = 6 meg-ohm.
• Panel Bus Insulation Resistance:
• The acceptable meg-ohm value = 2 x KV rating of the panel.
• Example, for a 5 KV panel, the minimum insulation is 2 x 5 = 10 meg-ohm
• IEEE 43 – INSULATION RESISTANCE AND POLARIZATION INDEX (min IR at 400C in MΩ)
 Minimum Insulation Resistance TEST SPECIMEN R1 min = kV+1 R1 min = 100 For most windings made before about 1970, all field windings, and others not described below For most dc armature and ac windings built after about 1970 (form wound coils) R1 min = 5 For most machines with random -wound stator coils and form-wound coils rated below 1kV

33) What is service factor?

• Service factor is the load that may be applied to a motor without exceeding allowed ratings. For example, if a 10-hp motor has a 1.25 service factor; it will successfully deliver 12.5 hp (10 x 1.25) without exceeding specified temperature rise. Note that when being driven above its rated load in this manner, the motor must be supplied with rated voltage and frequency.
• Keep in mind, however, that a 10-hp motor with a 1.25 service factor is not a 12.5-hp motor. If the 10-hp motor is operated continuously at 12.5 hp, its insulation life could be decreased by as much as two-thirds of normal. If you need a 12.5-hp motor, buy one; service factor should only be used for short-term overload conditions.

34) Calculate the size the CT on the neutral point of the secondary side of 11/0.415 kV Transformer

• For high impedance relays (differential or restricted earth fault relays), ‘Class X’ current transformers are recommended to be used.
• Please note that both CTs (neutral & phase) shall have the same characteristics. The following is an example to size the CT:
• Input data: 11/0.415 kV ,2500 KVA Power transformer ,Transformer impedance is 6% ,Length of cable from neutral CT to the relay is 200 m ,Cross section of CT cable to be used is 6 mm² -copper and resistance is 0.0032 Ω/m
• Step  1: Calculation of CT Rated Primary Current
• I = kVA/ (0.415×1.732) = 2500/ (0.415×1.732) = 3478.11 A, CT with primary current of 4000 A to be selected.
• Select the secondary current of the CT 1 or 5 A. selecting 1 A secondary current, as the cross section and length of pilot wires can have a significant effect on the required knee voltage of the CT and therefore the size and cost of the CT. When the relay is located some distance from the CT, the burden is increased by the resistance of the pilot wires.
• Step 2: Calculation of maximum Fault Current
• Ift = kVA/ (0.415×1.732x Z)
• Ift = 2500/ (0.415×1.732×0.06) = 57968.59 A (say 58000 A)
• Step 3: Calculation of the Knee Voltage of the CT (Vkp)
• Vkp = (2x Iftx (Rct+Rw)/CT transformation ratio)
• Where: Rct  is the CT resistance (to be given by the manufacturer), Here Rct is1.02 Ω.
•  Rw: total CT cable resistance= 2x cable length (200 m) x wire resistance= 2x200x0.0032= 1.28 Ω
• CT transformation ratio = CT Primary Current/CT Secondary Current
• CT transformation ratio = 4000/5= 800 A, for CT with 5 A secondary current; or,
• CT transformation ratio = 4000/1= 4000 A, for CT with 1 A secondary current. We will use 1 A in this example.
• Vkp = (2x58000x (1.02+1.28)/4000)= 66.7 V.
• The Vkp of the CT should be higher than the setting of relay stability voltage (Vs), to ensure stability of the protection during maximum Through fault current.
• To calculate the stability voltage,we should follow the related formula given by the relay manufacturer, as each relay manufacturer has its own formula.
• we may calculate the Vkp as above using a CT with secondary current of 5 A, and you will notice the difference in the Vkp.

35) When should we use Molded Case Circuit Breakers and Mini Circuit Breakers?

• MCB is Miniature Circuit Breaker, since it is miniature it has limitation for Short Circuit Current and Amp Rating MCB:
• MCB are available as Singe module and used for :-
• Number of Pole :- 1,2,3,4 – 1+ N , & 3 + N
• Usually Current range for A.C. 50-60 HZ, is from 0.5 Amp – 63 Amp. Also available 80A, 100A, and 125 Amp.
• SC are limited 10 KA
• Applications are as: – Industrial, Commercial and Residential application.
• Tripping Curve:
• (1) B Resistive and lighting load,
• (3) D Highly inductive load.
• MCCB:
• MCCB: – Moulded Case Circuit Breaker.
• MCCB are available as Singe module and used for:
• Number of Pole :- 3 pole , & 4 Pole
• Current range for A.C:
• For 3.2 /6.3/12.5/25/50/100/125/160 Amp and Short Circuit Capacity 25/35/65 KA.
• For  200 250 Amp and Short Circuit Capacity 25/35/65 KA
• For 400 630/800 Amp and Short Circuit Capacity 50 KA
• Protection release :
• Static Trip :- Continuous adjustable overload protection range 50 to 100 % of the rated current Earth fault protection can be add on with adjustable earth fault pick up setting 15 to 80 % of the current.
• Micro processor Based release:
• Over load rated current 0.4 to1.0 in steps of o.1 of in trip time at 600 % Ir (sec) 0.2.0.5,1, 1.5 , 2 ,3
• Short Circuit :-2 to10 in steps of 1 lr , short time delay (sec) 0.02.0.05,0.1, 0.2 ,0.3
• Instantaneous pick up :2 to10 in steps of 1 in Ground fault pick up Disable: 0.2 to 0.8 in steps of 0.1 of in Ground fault delay (sec): 0.1 to 0.4 in steps of 0.1
• MCB (Miniature Circuit Breaker) Trip characteristics normally not adjustable, factory set but in case of MCCB (Moulded Case Circuit Breaker) Trip current field adjustable.

### 34 Responses to Electrical Q&A Part-4

1. SYUKRI says:

need to know the overhead line HT can attach together at same pole with LV ….please comment ASAP

• PR. Jawahar says:

No problem in having the HT and LV on the same pole as long as the required clearances are maintained. However maintenance could be an issue as failure on HT or LV could lead to taking shutdown on the other healthy circuit as well.

2. anil says:

is ac power or dc power danger for human body ? and why ?

3. bheem reddy bhanu teja reddy says:

why the current problems? we have enoromous number of facilities why we cant utiise

4. G A Suthar says:

How unrestricted earth fault scheme work? in medium voltage system
and unrestricted earth fault and neutral E/F same or different?

5. chandan pandit says:

i am very like this site.because everything is available on this site.wich is knowledgeable for electrical engg.but please give the option for asking new quistion.thanks.

6. Sathya Narayana says:

Dear Sir, can you explain why transformer are rated in KVA and Generating Power in watts?

7. VIRUPANNA K says:

WHAT IS A LOW FREQUENCY TAN DELTA TEST FOR CABLES?

8. Surajit says:

How will u come 2 know the direction of power flowing if u r standing below a transmission line??
When neutral breaks in domestic wiring all the appliances put off except FAN…why???

9. Dear sir,
How can I check an ISI mark on a wiring cable packing?
The No is Is:694 CM/L-8818293
Please confirm is it fake or not
Thank You

10. rizwan shahid says:

what wil happen to transformer if we gave 5hz input instead of 50/60hz???

11. Uday says:

You have shown MCCB for 3 P and 4P only? Is it correct?

12. Shahwaz Rizvi says:

Hello Sir,
You are doing a great job for us.your each & every article is very usefull for me.Thanks a lot from the core of my heart.I am having one problem could you please solve or you can give me an idea to resolve it.

13. Shahwaz Rizvi says:

Question : There is three feeder from outgoing of the transformer each connected with 400 ampere of breaker & 3 phase energy meter.All feeder goes in 3 different location almost all have same load but the problem is that,2 of them have working load & 1 of them have sometime working,or almost I can say in stand by.So the 3 phase energy meter reading varies so much apart from all these electricity bill also becomes very low for that standby feeder & high for others.
So,I want to equal all these KWH could you please suggest me.

14. rakesh says:

What is the minimum distance between transformer and lighting arrester….

15. Jester Tabucbuc says:

What is the minimum distance of the vibration damper into the clamp in a 230 kV transmission line?

16. faizan says:

which type of LV earthing standard u use (TT,IT)

17. irfan says:

For HT Panels we are giving 110DC, but now adays these batteries are getting heated even though i have checked over current and shortage of supply. but i dint get any thing. can any body please help me??/

18. Prashant Choudhary says:

Thankyou MR Jignesh your collection is awesome.

19. Vinod Khajuria says:

Will you please share if the 11/0.415 kV Distribution Transformer installed indoor requires a 11kV Ligtening Arrestor.If so,at which location indoor or outdoor

20. Mike says:

Hi I have a tire shop in antlers one of my lightning resistors exploded on a no storm day while in my shop and noticed after a while had no air checked out back and my compression quit running they worked up until it happened could it cause for voltage change interfering with my 3 phase

21. swapnil shridhar sapte says:

why use for LT 3phase 4wire system overhead line neutral conductor size small?

22. SOUGATA says:

SIR I AM REALLY IMPRESSED WITH THIS QS AND ANS……THANK YOU VERY MUCH SIR…PLS SHARE THIS TYPE OF MORE INTERESTING QS & ANS

Dear Sir,

We have a 250mva auto transformer, the problem with it is that it has a high leakage current from 11kv tertiary to ground connections through surge arrester like 50A , normal current is like 1mA , we have even replaced the surge arrester and performed a series of tests on transformer, the results are accurate plz help what could be reason for this?

24. Mahendra says:

How many Space require (L x B x H) for installation of 3 x 1500 KVA Indoor type (Dry Type Transformer

25. komal umak says:

how to calculate the distance between two transmission poles plz ans me
and distance between two substation

26. Aneesh Mohanan says:

Sir,
What would happen if an earth fault of equal magnitude occurs on all three phases ?

27. GIBRIL MOHAMED says:

DEAR
CAN I USE 50HZ OVERCURRENT RELAY AND 50HZ CURRENT TRANSFORMER ON 60HZ SYSTEM ?

28. bachali says:

Why earth cable is required at pipeline from plunge to plunge. Any way there is continuity from metal to metal

29. Barendra Majhi says:

Why incoming line CT ratio is larger than the CT ratio used before transformer

30. PRAVINBHAI CHANDUBHAI PARMAR says:

sir very good work you have been doing ……..thank you…

31. DR MUKESH KUMAR says:

Thanks from bottom of my heart for posting such a nicely designed questions with answers. These are very helpful. My I request you to answer one of my doubt from electrical field of Marine field. The Emergency Generator on board merchant ship is always fitted with Electronics Governor for Prime Mover [Diesel Engine[. Why? Whereas the Main Generators are fitted with either Electromechanical Governor e,g, Woodward UG8.
Mukesh Kumar
mukesh63.k@gmail.com

32. syed ali muzaffar says:

why is there is unbalance in the currents when an LT generator is tied to a utility bus

33. Nabeel P T says:

Hello Sir