Method for Installation of HVAC System (Part-1)


Purpose:

  • This method explains the Procedures or sequence of activity for safely and efficiently installation and Testing of Refrigerant Pipes , Drain Pipes ,Indoor and Out Door Unit of HVAC System as per standard Practice and Code.

General Equipment & Tools:

  • The equipment that will be engaged for Installation of Cable works will be
  • Lifting crane , Transportation vehicle, Fork Lift
  • Winches, Pulling Rope , Welding machine
  • Lubricant (Soap based, wax based), Cleaning agent (CRP)
  • Copper pipe Flaring tools
  • Vacuum Pump,
  • Brazing Torch , Brazing Rod , Oxy-Acetylene Brazing Kit ,Wire Brush
  • Nitrogen Cylinders , Soldering Tools
  • Crimping tool, Drilling Machine with various Bits , Grinding Machine , Cutting Machine
  • Electrical Tool Box, Cable Cutter, Screwdriver, Pliers, Spanner.
  • Ladder , Scaffolding / Mobile scaffold
  • Nylon rope, Marker , Leveling device , Tape measure
  • Removable Barricades , Portable Lights
  • Testing Equipment for System
  • Multi meter ,Clamp Meter
  • Refrigerant / Nitrogen cylinder,
  • Vacuum Gauge

Storage & Material Handling:

  • The storage area must be free from dust and Water leakages / seepages.
  • Manufacturer recommendation shall always be followed in loading/unloading and storing of Material.
  • Material and its accessories shall be unloaded handle with care in designated area of the Store (Do not directly drop to Ground) to avoid any damages.
  • Materials shall be stored in a dry place which is free from water or from weather effects and protection should be given to the material by means of covering the material with Tarpaulin sheet.
  • The Material will be stacked / unload in the site store on a proper stand on wooden loft on a flat surface at a sufficient height from Ground.
  • The A/C Units should be kept on the wooden platform and covering with polythene to protected from any dust or mechanical damages
  • For storing the copper pipes:
  • If pipes will be used soon, nozzle should be sealed by plastic bag or tape.
  • If pipes will be stored for a long time, the pipes should be charged into 0.2 to 0.5MPa Nitrogen and the nozzle should be sealed by welding.

Inspection of Materials:

  • Check The Material according to its Type, Size, Make
  • Physical Damages Inspection:
  • Damage on Pipes and Units.
  • Damage on insulation of Cable
  • In case of any damages observed during inspection, the Material shall be returned to the supplier for replacement.

 Installation of Outdoor Units :

 (a) Transporting / Lifting the Outdoor Unit

  • Use appropriate moving equipment to transport outdoor Unit, ensure the equipment is capable of supporting the weights. When lifting the unit, use lifting straps and place around the unit.
  • Always lift the unit using appropriate size of lifting straps rated to carry the unit weight and long enough to maintain a maximum of a 40° angle as shown.
  • When moving / adjusting the placement of the outdoor unit, always hold the unit by the corners. Moving the outdoor unit using the side intake holes on the frame may damage the frame.
  • Consider the unit’s center of gravity before lifting. Hoist the unit with the center of gravity centered among the lifting straps. There is a risk of the product falling and causing physical injury.
  • Lift the outdoor unit from the base at specified locations. Support the outdoor unit at a minimum of six points to avoid slippage from the rigging apparatus.
  • Do not lay the unit on its side and do not slant the unit more than 30 degrees.

  • On a supporting structure that can bear the weight of the outdoor unit. The supporting structure can be a base on the ground, on a waterproof roof, or in a pit. With sufficient clearances around the unit for service and repairs. In a well-ventilated location. Away from strong wind.
  • Away from direct exposure to rain or snow. Where there is no risk of flammable vapor leakage. Where there is no exposure to salt, machine oil, sulfide gas, or corrosive environmental conditions.

(b) Selecting the Best Location for the Outdoor Unit(s)

  • Don’ts:
  • Do not install the unit in an area where combustible gas may generate, flow, stagnate, or leak. These conditions can cause a fire.
  • Do not install the unit in a location where acidic solution and spray (sulfur) are often used or in environments where oil, steam, or sulfuric gas are present.
  • A location that allows for optimum air flow and is easily accessible for inspection, maintenance, and Where piping between the outdoor unit and indoor unit(s) / heat recovery units are within allowable Limits.
  • Avoid placing the outdoor unit in a low-lying area where water could accumulate.
  • If the outdoor unit is installed in a highly humid environment (near an ocean, lake, etc.), ensure that the site is well-ventilated and has a lot of natural light (Example: Install on a rooftop).
  • Where operating sound from the unit will disturb inhabitants of surrounding buildings.
  • Where the unit will be exposed to direct, strong winds.
  • Where the discharge of one outdoor unit will blow into the inlet side of an adjacent unit (when installing multiple outdoor units).

  • If the outdoor unit is not placed on a roof, place it on the leeward side of the building or in a location where the unit will not be ex­posed to constant wind.
  • If placement exposes the unit to constant wind activity, construct a wind break in front of the unit. Follow the placement guidelines set

  • Avoid installing the outdoor unit where it would be directly exposed to ocean winds.
  • Install the outdoor unit on the side of the building opposite from direct ocean winds.
  • Select a location with good drainage and periodically clean dust or salt particles off of the heat exchanger with water.
  • Ocean winds may cause corrosion, particularly on the condenser and evaporator fins, which, in turn could cause product malfunction or inefficient performance.
  • If the outdoor unit must be placed in a location where it would be subjected to direct ocean winds, install a concrete windbreaker strong enough to block any winds. Windbreaker height and width must be more than 150% of the outdoor unit, and be installed at least 27.5 inches away from the outdoor unit to allow for airflow.

  • Rubber anti-vibration pads are necessary to avoid vibration.

  • Foundation can be made of channel steel or concrete.

  • Reserve the space for discharging condensate water from outdoor units.
  • The outdoor unit should be placed neatly, and reserve enough space for maintenance.
  • The outdoor unit should be installed in the place that is dry, well-ventilation and close to the indoor units.

Method for Installation of Cable & Wire (Part-2)


(A) Cable Laying in Excavated Ground:

(a) Formation of Cable Trench.

  • Check the area of excavation by referring As Built drawing to find out crossing of any underground Services i.e. Gas Line, Water Line or other Cable. Check the indication marks, signs, manholes nearby area and find out the path of old services.
  • If there are structures adjacent to the work area, proper temporary supports shall be provided to the adjacent structure prior to start excavation.
  • Excavation near the existing electrical cables, instrumentation and control cables, sewer line, gas lines and any other service line shall take all necessary precautions to protect the services with proper supports & covers.
  • Ensure the working area at any confined space is free from any Hazardous Gas by proper Gas testing using the Gas testing instrument.
  • Required sign boards such as “DEEP EXCAVATION” “MEN WORKING”, “DANGER” and warning boards will be placed to indicate the excavation work. The area of excavation will be cordoned by using safety barricading to stop trespassers.
  • In open areas the excavation shall be carried out by using the machineries.
  • If the excavation level is below the local water table level suitable dewatering system shall be designed and installed in such a way that alterations and extensions to the system during operations are possible.
  • The width of the excavated Cable trench shall be as per specification or as per approved Drawings.
  • The trench shall be excavated up to the required depth of 0.76 Meter from the existing ground level or as per Specification or as per approved Drawing.
  • The Cable trench shall be kept dry during cable installation operation. The contractor shall deal with the dispose of water so as to prevent any risk to the cables and other materials.
  • Debris, rocks and unusable materials shall be removed from Excavated Trench on daily basis and it will dump at the approved dumping Location of from the site.

(b) First Layer of Sand:

  • The bottom of the trench shall be backfilled with a layer of clean and fine sand bedding of 100mm thickness or as per the approved Drawing.
  • The fill material shall be tamped. Any hard material which could damage the cable will be removed
  • Inspection of sand bed will be carried out prior to commencement of cable pulling.

(c) Cable Laying:

  • Cables are laid over the clean and fine First Layer of sand bedding.
  • Rollers must be used where cables are installed in an open trench using a pulling rope and eye; cable rollers are to be used at frequent intervals to support the cables and must never be more than 3 meters apart.
  • Care must be taken to ensure that the cable does not enter or leave the rollers at an angle that exceeds the bending radius of the cable.
  • The Pulling rope must be attached to the cable by a stocking grip with pulling eye.
  • The cable shall be drawn into the trench manually, before the pull commences, to prevent the winch to move along with the cable.
  • The cable shall be drawn into the trench smoothly with a minimum of stops and at an average speed of between 9 to 12 meters per minute, to avoid irregular movement.
  • Cables shall be arranged properly to minimize crossovers, twists.
  • All Cable shall be laying parallel to each other and cable dressing should be done properly
  • Cable identification tags shall be installed on both end of cable after the cable pulling.

(d) Second Layer of Sand:

  • The cables shall be backfilled with approved clean and fine Sand / backfill Material of 100mm thickness or as per the approved Drawing.
  • The fill material shall be tamped. Any hard material which could damage the cable will be removed
  • Inspection of sand bed will be carried out prior to commencement of Cable Protection layer.

(e) Cable Protection:

  • Cable protection tiles / Bricks / Warning Taps are laid above the second layer of dune sand filling.

(f) Back Filling:

  • Backfilling materials shall be free from stones or rocks (larger than 50 mm), fossil content, vegetation and its roots, waste materials, Material containing gypsum or other soluble salts greater than the allowable limits which might prevent proper compaction or cause to inadequately of performance.
  • Backfilling area shall be backfilled with approved material compacted in layers by suitable equipment like plate compactors, vibratory roller compactors, etc., until the specified density has been obtained.
  • Sufficient Water is poured to match the required Moisture content.
  • Intermediate cable markers to be firmly attached to the cables.
  • The thickness of fill material shall not exceed 150 mm where manual compaction methods are adopted.

(B) Cable Laying in Cable Tray / Trunking:

  • Before laying of Cable , Cable Tray work should be completed form the one end to other end of the Cable route
  • The cable tray must be cleaned and free from any dust or water dampness, before pulling the cables.
  • Use cable rollers in cable trays to avoid damage on cables during the pulling process.
  • From cable reel to cable tray, the cable is fed from the top of the reel to maintain required curvature. Sheaves, or a shoe, may be used to guide the cable into the tray.

  • Cable rollers shall be placed at every 6-12 meters or less if required to avoid touching of the cable to tray.
  • Cable laying will generally start from one end of the route length from other suitable point if required.
  • The number and size of cables drawn in to a particular cable tray shall not be exceed that allowed in specifications.
  • At any time of Cable laying only one cable should be laid on cable tray, after laying first cable necessary dressing and cable tie should be fixed than after that second cable should be lay.
  • Cut the cables to required length at both ends, seal the ends with adhesive insulation tape roll and keep in the box or enclosures to ensure no damage can occur to cables.
  • Cables shall be arranged properly to minimize crossovers, twists
  • Control cables will be laid along the LV cables. HV cables to be laid in separate trays
  • All control cables will be installed at a minimum distance of 100mm from power cables unless otherwise agreed with consultant as per site conditions.
  • After completion of all cables in the same route the cables shall be dressed and clamped.
  • All cables in horizontal or vertical runs will be secured to the trays by nylon fasteners / ties.
  • Cable identification tags as per specifications shall be installed on both end (at sending and receiving ends) of cable after the cable pulling.

(C) Cable Laying in the Building

  •  In case of Cable lay inside the buildings, the drums will be placed outside the buildings and the cable pulled in the opposite direction. After reaching the other end the length of the cable required for reaching the location inside the building will be measured and then cut the cable.
  • The cable is fed from the cable reel directly into the conduit at floor level.
  • The cable is fed from the bottom of the reel so that its curvature is continuous with no reversed bends.

  • Do not pull cable directly across short, sharp angles. After pulling completely out of one side of the enclosure, feed cable into the other side of the enclosure and pull that segment
  • Unloading equipment should not come in contact with the cable or its protective covering.

(7) Wires Pulling in Conduit:

  • Proper marking / selection of location on site to be done prior to commencement of installation works.
  • Complete a mockup installation before main works and get its approval.
  • Make sure that all conduits and boxes in both ends are free from damages and blockages etc and installation is approved.
  • Blockage shall be checked by inserting the draw wire and checking that it reaches to the other end without any disturbance.
  • Use of Steel fish wire shall be made for drawing of wires. Wires shall be drawn with adequate care.
  • Once the conduit is not blocked the wires shall be pulled using the draw wires while ensuring no damage occurs while pulling.
  • Pulling compound or lubricant shall be used for pulling the wires where required.
  • Use soap based pulling compound for short runs i.e. less than 20 meters for semi conductive insulated wires.
  • Use wax based pulling compound for the runs greater than 20 meters for semi conductive insulated wires.
  • While pulling the wires care should be taken to not insert the pull tension greater than the manufacturer allowed limits.
  • Separate conduits shall be run for lighting and power circuits and also for telephone cables. To avoid any cross talk and extraneous interference in the telephone circuits, all telephone wiring conduits shall be run with a sufficient clearance from the power and lighting conduits.
  • All separate circuits from DB’s shall have separate neutral to the points. Common neutral between separate circuits are not permissible.
  • As far as possible wiring shall be run in conduits. All conduit wiring shall be complete with continuous earth as per I.E.R.
  • The wiring shall be carried out as specified.  ‘Power’ and ‘heating’ wiring shall be kept separate and distinct from ‘Lighting’ wiring. The wiring shall be done on the distribution system with main and branch distribution boards at convenient physical and electrical centers and consideration shall be given for neatness and good appearance.
  • The wiring shall be done in the ‘Looping System. ‘Phase’ or ‘live’ conductors shall be looped at the switch box and neutral conductor can be looped from the light fan or socket outlets.
  • 5 sq. mm PVC wires in green color are to be run continuously in conduits for continuous earthing. The earth wire should be connected to GI Switch boxes and DB boxes by tapped screws.
  • No bare or twist joints shall be made at intermediate points in the through run of cables.
  • Bare or twist joints shall be carried out with due care and preferably through proper junction boxes.
  • If any joint becomes unavoidable such joints shall be made through proper cutouts or through proper junction boxes open to easy inspections.
  • Electrical Load should be balance on all the three phases for an even distribution. Before commencement of work, the contractor shall seek the approval of the Consultants / Site Engineer on the distribution of balancing of loads and circuits. The wiring shall be done by the process of looping the live conductors and the neutral wires. 
  • Color coding of wires
  • Phase : Red, Blue, Yellow,
  • Neutral: Black,
  • Earth: Green.
  • Adequate extra length shall be left at termination points. 

(8) Excess or Spare Cable Storage:

  • Store Cable reels on hard surface so that the flanges will not sink and allow reel weight to rest on cable.

(9) Cables Identification / Marking of Cables:

  • Install the tags / labels as per project specifications and as per approved material submittals.
  • Cable marking shall be positioned properly to read and identify
  • For Buried / Surface mounted cables tagging / Labeling will be corrosion resistant tags (with engraved or stamped for the identification number of the cable, voltage Rating, conductor size and make) or as per project specifications and as per approved material submittals.
  • Cables shall be identified at feeders i.e. the sending and receiving ends (outgoing cables in SMDB’s and final DB’s) about 50mm below the gland.
  • All termination shall be provided with tight fitting covering sleeves.

(10) Duct Seals:

  • After installation of all Cables, all cable ducts / Hume Pipes / Sleeves entering substations and buildings to be duct sealedto prevent the ingress of water and gas.

(11) REFERENCES

  • IEC 60228, BS 6360.
  • BS 5467.

(12) Flow Chart:

  

Method for Installation of Cable & Wire (Part-1)


Purpose:

  • The method explains the Procedures or activity for safely installation and Testing of MV cable in directly buries in ground, in trenches, in to cable trays or in underground ducts as per the standard Practice and Code.

General Equipment & Tools:

  • Testing Equipment for Cable
  • LV / HV Insulation Resistance tester (250V to 5KV)
  • Multi-meter
  • Continuity Tester
  • AC High Voltage Test Kit

Storage & Material Handling:

  • The storage area must be free from dust and Water leakages / seepages.
  • Manufacturer recommendation shall always be followed in loading/unloading and storing of Material.
  • Material and its accessories shall be unloaded handle with care in designated area of the Store (Do not directly drop to Ground) to avoid any damages.
  • Materials shall be stored in a dry place which is free from water or from weather effects and protection should be given to the material by means of covering the material with Tarpaulin sheet.
  • The Material will be stacked / unload in the site store on a proper stand on wooden loft on a flat surface at a sufficient height from Ground.
  • If Material are dispatch in packs or pallets, each pack or pallet shall be lifted individually with suitable lifting equipment.
  • The material shall be transported / Shifted in their original packing to Site location.
  • The cable drums shall be off-loaded at the site locations.

  • The cable drum should be visually inspected for damage, which may have occurred during transport.
  • During storage periodical rolling of drums once in 3 months done. Rolling shall be done in the direction of the arrow marked on the drum.
  • It should be ensured that both ends of the cable are properly sealed to prevent ingress/absorption of moisture by the insulation.
  • Protection from rain and sun shall be ensured. Sufficient ventilation between cable drums, should be ensured during storage.
  • The drums shall always be rested on the flanges and not on the flat sides. f. Damaged battens of drums etc. should be replaced, if necessary.
  • When cable drums have to be moved over short distances, they should be rolled in the direction of the arrow, marked on the drum
  • While transferring cable from one drum to another, the barrel of the new drum shall have a diameter not less than that of the original drum.
  • The manufacturer’s seal on the inner and outer cable ends should be examined and the condition of the sheath inspected for mechanical damage.
  • If the cable is found defective it shall not be installed and the cable shall be returned to the supplier for replacement.

Inspection of Materials:

  • Check The Material according to its Type, Size, Make
  • Inspection of Cable:
  • Type of Cable (HT /MV /LV)
  • Cable Operating Voltage
  • No of Cable Core (1 core,2core,3 core, 3.5 Core,4 core)
  • Type of Cable Core (Cu, Alu)
  • Type of Cable Material (PVC,XLPE)
  • Size of Cable
  • Length of Cable
  • Physical Damages Inspection:
  • Damage on Cable Drum
  • Damage on insulation of Cable
  • In case of any damages observed during inspection, the concern report will be issued and Material shall be returned to the supplier for replacement.

Testing and of Cable:

(1) Insulation resistance test:

  • Following Insulation resistance test will be carried out by approved calibrated equipment.
  • At the Time of Cable drum receiving at the Store
  • Before Installation of Cable on Site.
  • After Installation of Cable on Site.
  • The Insulation Resistance values will be noted for Core to Core and Armor by DC High Voltage Tester (Megger) before following activities.
                                    Voltage Class Test instrument Acceptance Value
L/V Cable 1000 VDC >20 Mega ohm
M/V Cable 5000 VDC >100 Mega ohm
Control, Instrumentation, Communication cable 250 VDC >1 Mega ohm
  • The cables and conductors must discharged after Insulation Resistnce test.

(2) The continuity test:

  • The continuity test would be carried out between
  • Phase to Phase,
  • Phase to Neutral,
  • Phase to earth and
  • Neutral to Earth.
  • The results would be recorded for records and future reference.
  • After the test, the end of the cable shall be sealed to prevent the ingress of moisture.

General Steps for Cabling Laying

  • Shifting of Cable Drum at Working Location:
  • If a crane is used to unload / Shift cable, a shaft through the arbor hole or a cradle supporting both reel flanges should be used.
  • Forklifts must lift the reel by contacting both flanges.
  • Check and ensure that approved drawings, the correct size and type of Cable & accessories are ready for installation.
  • Ensure that Cable and accessories received from site store for the installation are free of rusty parts and damages.
  • Installation of Cable Drum on Jacks:
  • Check and ensure that the Correct Size and Type of Cable Drum and accessories are transported at the Site locations.
  • Ensure that cable and its accessories received from site store for the installation are free from rust, corrosion and damages
  • Location of cable drum should be planned before transportation of cable drum. (Practically could differ at one or two places for easy installation of cable).
  • The cable drums shall be un-packed.
  • Depending on the weight and size of the drum, suitable size of the cable spindle shall be placed inside the central axis of the drum.
  • Suitable jacks shall be placed firmly on the ground and jacked-up the Drum to allow sufficient clearance from the ground. Ensure that the cable drum on a jack is free for rotation.
  • The cable drum will be correctly positioned and the direction of cable pulling as indicated by arrow on the drum shall be complied.
  • Drum control during pulling
  • Cable winch, if required, shall be positioned in proper place for cable pulling.
  • The cable shall be fixed to the winch, if used, by means of a cable sock or gripper. Required number of persons will be posted at winch and near the drum.
  • At all times during the pulling operation, at least one member of the team shall be stationed at the drum to control its rotation and check on the stability of the drum and jacks.
  • Cable Roller:
  • Cable rollers shall be placed as required on the cable route.
  • Cable rollers will be placed not more than more than 3 meters apart under the M.V cable during pulling over longer distances and standoff rollers for acute bends to ensure that the cable is pulled with minimum effort and the cable outer jacket is free of scouring lines.
  • Cable Pulling Speed:
  • The required cable pulling speed and tension requirement shall be maintained according to the manufacturer’s specification. If any problem arises during the pulling, the proceedings shall be stopped immediately and restarted only after the problem has been cleared.
  • The pulling speed shall be controlled during the cable pulling and it will be assured by observing the indication of the tension meter.
  • Cable pulling shall be done under strict supervision during the entire period of operation. Safety norms shall be observed and shall stick to the standard requirements
  • Identify Cable Laying Route:
  • Location of the panels / equipment shall be identified.
  • Cable laying will generally start from one end of the route length or at any suitable point if required.
  • In case of cable lengths which are more than one drum length, all cables which can be laid from original position will be completed. And then the cable pulling set-up will be re-positioned to the next location, from where the next length will be pulled.
  • Cables shall be cut from the drums as per the actual cable length in accordance to the drum schedule and drum allocation sheets
  • Before cutting the cable, both ends must be inspected to ensure sufficient length is for proper dressing and end termination.
  • The cable schedule and drum schedule will be updated with the information on cable pulling.
  • Cable rollers shall be positioned properly in to the cable trench. The intervals for the rollers are to be kept approximately 2 to 3 meters.
  • The rollers shall be maintaining its smooth rotation. If the cable will run through the curves and edges the, curve rollers should be used at the proper position in order to keeps a safe cable bending.
  • Precaution while laying of Cable:
  • Where bends are encountered in a run, cables shall be lubricated with a cable pulling lubricant (without Petroleum based) to facilitate easy movement.
  • Ensure excessive force and twisting of cables is avoided
  • Proper spacing will be maintained between the cables
  • Cables are protected from mechanical damage during pulling
  • Protection shall be provided to the cables at crossings with pipes, civil works to prevent mechanical damage.
  • PVC sleeves shall be installed for all cables passing through brick, block or concrete or similar structures in case there is need for future withdrawal.
  • After the Insulation Resistance Test, the open ends of the cable will be sealed till termination to prevent entry of Moisture and water.
  • After completion of all cables in the same route the cables shall be dressed and clamped.
  • Unless the lengths exceed the maximum drum lengths joints shall be avoided. Joint markers indicating joint positions shall be provided above ground and also shown on the drawings.
  • Empty cable drums will be transported back to stores.
  • Measure Insulation Resistance before Laying Cable
  • Insulation resistance of the cables shall be checked before laying cables.
  • Measure Insulation Resistance After Laying Cable
  • Soon after completion of every cable laying the cables will be tested for insulation resistance.
  • Cable Bending Radius:
  • During installation process cable can not be bent to a radius of less than 6D for unarmored cable and 8D for armored cable or bending radius of cables shall comply with cable manufacturer’s recommendation. These conditions shall be strictly follow to, particularly where cables turn into road crossings, conduit entry etc
  • Eliminate Sharp Edge:
  • While pulling, in order to eliminate sharp bend and crossovers, always have a person feed the cable(s) straight into the conduit by hand or, for larger cables, over a large diameter sheave.

  • Do not pull cable directly across short, sharp angles. After pulling completely out of one side of the enclosure, feed cable into the other side of the enclose and pull that segment.

  • Cable Laying Arrangements:

  • The configuration of three single-conductor cables in a conduit is determined by the ratio of the conduit inner diameter (D) to the outer diameter (d) of one of the single cables (D/d ratio).

  • A cradled configuration develops when three single-conductor cables are pulled into a conduit where the D/d ratio is 2.5 or greater.
  • A triangular configuration develops when three single conductor cables are pulled into a conduit where the D/d ratio is less than 2.5.
  • These cables may be pulled from individual reels, tandem reels, or a single reel with parallel wound cables.

Quick Reference -HVAC (Part-2)


A.C Capacity

Ton KW H.P
0.64 2.1 0.8
0.80 2.8 1
1.00 3.7 1.25
1.28 4.6 1.6
1.60 5.6 2
2.00 7.31 2.5
2.56 9.35 3.2
3.20 11.6 4
4.00 14.4 5
4.48 16.7 5.6
6.40 22.1 8
8.00 29.1 10
1TON= 1TON=3000 K.Cal/Hr
1TON=1200 BTU/Hr
1TON=3.516 KW
1TON=1.25 HP (VRV / VRF Only)
1TON=4.7 HP
1TON=12660 KJ/Hr

Split AC Copper Pipe Size (Blue Star)

A.C Capacity Suction Pipe Discharge Pipe (Liquid)
Up to 1 Ton 12.7mm (1/2″) 6.4mm (1/4″)
1 To 4 Ton 15.9mm (5/8″) 9.5mm (3/8″)
5 To 6 Ton 19.1mm (3/4″) 9.5mm (3/8″)
7 To 8 Ton 22.2mm (7/8″) 12.7mm (1/2″)
9 To 11 Ton 28.6mm (1 1/8″) 12.7mm (1/2″)
12 To 19 Ton 28.6mm (1 1/8″) 15.9mm (5/8″)
20 To 27Ton 34.9mm (1 3/8″) 19.1mm (3/4″)
28 To 42Ton 41.5mm (1 5/8″) 19.1mm (3/4″)
Normal Split A.C Copper Pipe Maximum Length = 15Meter
VRV System Copper Pipe Maximum Length = 150Meter

Split AC Copper Pipe Length

A.C Capacity Maximum Pipe Length Maximum Indoor & Outdoor Height Difference
0.5 Ton 15 Meter 5 Meter
0.6 Ton 15 Meter 5 Meter
0.75 Ton 15 Meter 5 Meter
1 Ton 20 Meter 10 Meter
1.5 Ton 25 Meter 10 Meter
2 Ton 25 Meter 10 Meter
2.5 Ton 30 Meter 10 Meter
3 Ton 30 Meter 20 Meter
3.5 Ton 30 Meter 20 Meter
4 Ton 30 Meter 20 Meter

Split AC Copper Pipe Additional Refrigerant Charge

Total Pipe Length 50 Meter 60 Meter 70 Meter
Additional Refrigerant None 250 gm (25gm/Meter) 500 gm (25gm/Meter)

Copper Pipe Thickness

Pipe Size Thickness Tube Gauge Type
6.4mm (1/4″) 0.8 mm 21 Soft
9.5mm (3/8″) 0.8 mm 21 Soft
12.7mm (1/2″) 0.8 mm 21 Soft
15.9mm (5/8″) 1 mm 19 Soft
19.1mm (3/4″) 1 mm 19 Soft
22.2mm (7/8″) 1 mm 19 Hard
28.6mm (1 1/8″) 1.2 mm 18 Hard
34.9mm (1 3/8″) 1.2 mm 18 Hard
41.5mm (1 5/8″) 1.3 mm 18 Hard
De-Oxidized Copper Tubes (DHP) , Copper 99.9%
Soft Copper as per ASTM B68
Hard Copper as per ASTM B75 / ASTM280 / BS 2871

Gas Pressure For any Ton Capacity

Refergerent Suction Pressure (PSI) Discharge Pressure (PSI) Standing Pressure (PSI)
M/C ON M/C ON M/C OFF
R 22 60 To 70 250To 300 156
R 32 120 490 260
R 134A 35 158 To 199 95
R 290 65 275 To 300 125
R 404A 87 270 To 356 190
R 407C 63 247 To 307 153
R 410A 110 To 120 400 To 500 250
R 417A 65 261 140
Nitrogen Pressure Test

Vacuum

3 Minutes 150 PSI <= 500 Micron for 24 Hours
5 Minutes 325 PSI
24 Hours 500 PSI
vacuum < 500 Micron

System Problems

System Problem Discharge Line Pressure Suction Line Pressure Suction Line Temperature Compressor Amp
Over Gas Charge High High Low (Ice on Suction Pipe) High
Under Gas Charge Low Low High Low
Capillary Block Low Low High Low
Less Air Flow on Evaporator (Indoor Unit) Low Low Low Low
Less Air Flow on Condenser (Outdoor Unit) High High High High
Dirty Condenser (Outdoor Unit) High High High High
Low Ambient Temperature Low Low Low Low
High Ambient Temperature High High High High
Insuffient Compressor Low High High Low

Insulation Thickness

Refrigerant Pipe Insulation Drain Pipe Insulation
22.22mm To 28.58mm 19mm 25mm / 32mm /40mm 6mm
12.7mm To 19.05mm 13mm / 19mm
6.35mm To 9.2mm 9mm / 13mm

 Referent Pipe Insulation

Pipe Pipe size Insulation Type (EPDM or NBR)
Standard conditions 86°F (30°C), < 85% High humidity conditions(a) 86°F (30°C), >85%
Liquid Pipe 1/4″ (6.35 mm)  To 3/8″ (9.52 mm) 3/8″ (9 mm) 3/8″ (9 mm)
1/2″ (12.70 mm)  To  2″ (50.80 mm) 1/2″ (13 mm) 1/2″ (13 mm)
Vapor Pipe 1/4″ (6.35 mm) To 7/8″ (22.23)  1/2″ (13 mm) 3/4″ (19 mm)

The distance between the supports of the copper pipes.

Diameter Distance (m)
 ≤ 20 mm 1 Meter
20 To 40 mm 1.5 Meter
 ≥ 40 mm 2 Meter

The permitted length and drop difference

Pipe length Max. pipe length <= 240 Meter
Equivalent length from the first branch to the farthest indoor unit <= 40 Meter
Drop height Drop height between indoor unit and outdoor unit <= 110 Meter
Drop height between indoor units <= 30 Meter

Factory Fabricated

Duct Size Gauge of GI sheet
1 – 900 mm 26
901 -1200 mm 24
1201 -1800 mm 22
1801 – 2100 mm 20
2101 – above 18

Site   Fabricated

Duct Size Gauge of GI sheet
Upto 750mm 24
750mm- 1500 mm 22
1510 mm- 2250 mm 20
above 2250 mm 18

Horizontal Ductwork

Ducts Size Maximum Spacing
Area (m2) Diameter
less than 0.4 less than 125 mm 2.5 Meter
0.4 to 1 125 to 1000 mm 2 Meter
more than 1 more than 1000 mm 1.2 Meter

Vertical Ductwork

Ducts Type Maximum Spacing (Meter)
round 3.6 Meter
rectangular 3 Meter

Rectangular Duct Sheet Thickness as per CPWD

Longest side (mm) Minimum sheet thickness
Galvanized Sheet Steel (GSS) IS: 277  For Aluminum IS:737
750 mm and below 0.63mm (22 Gauge) 0.8mm  (20 Gauge)
751 mm to 1500 mm 0.8mm  (20 Gauge) 1mm  (18 Gauge)
1501 mm to 2250 mm 1mm  (18 Gauge) 1.5 mm (15 Gauge)
2251 mm & above 1.25mm   (16 Gauge) 1.8 (13 Gauge)

Round Duct Sheet Thickness as per CPWD

Longest side (mm) Minimum sheet thickness
Galvanized Sheet Steel (GSS) IS: 277  For Aluminum IS:737
150 mm to 500 mm 0.63mm (22 Gauge) 0.8mm  (20 Gauge)
501 mm to 750 mm 0.8mm  (20 Gauge) 1mm  (18 Gauge)
751 mm to 1000 mm 0.8mm  (20 Gauge) 1mm  (18 Gauge)
1001 mm to 1250 mm 1mm  (18 Gauge) 1.5 mm (15 Gauge)
1251 mm and above 1.25mm   (16 Gauge) 1.8 (13 Gauge)

DUCT Support OR Gripple Wire Support

Duct Size (mm)  Spacing (M)  Size of MS Angle (mm x mm) Size of Rod Dia (mm)
Up to 750 2.4 32x32x3 8
 751 to 1000 2 40x40x5 10
1000 to 1500 2 40x40x5 10
1501 to 2250 2  50x50x6 12
2251 to above 2  50x50x6 12

Round Duct Support

Round Duct Size (mm)  Spacing of Supports (m) Size of M.S. Angle (mm) Dia. of Hanger Rod (mm)
 Up to 500 1.5 40 x 40 x 6 12
 501 to 1200 1.5 40 x 40 x 6 12
1201 to 2250 1.5  50 x 50 x 6 15

Normal Ducting:

Larger duct-dimension  Spacing of Supports (m)  Sheet thickness, SWG (mm)
Up to 750 mm 1.5 To 2 2 24 G (0.63 mm) (25×25 GI flanges acceptable)
751 to 1500 mm 1.5 To 2 22 G (0.80 mm) (25x25x3 MS flanges  up to 1000mm; 40x40x5 MS flanges beyond 1000mm)
1501 mm to 2250 mm 1.5 To 2  20 G (1.00 mm) (40x40x5 MS flanges)
Above 2250 mm 1.5 To 2  18 G (1.20 mm) (50x50x6 MS flanges)

Supporting details for Low-Pressure system

LARGER SIDE OF DUCT mm SUPPORTING
ANGLE mm
VERTICAL ROD
DIAMETER mm
MAXIMUM
SPACING BETWEEN
SUPPORTS mm
Upto 900 40x40x6 10 3000
901 to 1500 50x50x6 10 3000
1501 to 2400 50x50x6 10 2400
2401 and above  65x65x6 12 2400

Supporting details for Round Duct

DUCT DIAMETER mm STRAP ROD
No WIDTH mm THICKNESS G No DIAMETER mm
Upto 600 1 25 22 1 7
601 to 900 1 25 20 1 10
901 to 1250 2 25 20 2 10
1251 t o1500 2 25 18 2 10
1501 to 2100 2 25 18 2 10

 Diffuser size

Area   Ceiling Height  Diffuser size(dia.)
Up to 12 sqmm 2.4 – 2.7m 200mm
Up to 12 sqmm 3m   250mm
Up to 20 sqmm 2.4m – 2.7m   250mm
Up to 20 sqmm 3m   300mm
Over 20 sqmm multiple diffusers

Additional refrigerant charged volume

Liquid pipe Size R410A (kg/m)
6.4 mm 0.022
9.5 mm 0.057
12.7 mm 0.11
15.9 mm 0.18
19.1 mm 0.26
22.2 mm 0.37
25.4 mm 0.45

Drain Pipe Capacity

Condensate water volume : V (L/h)=Indoor Unit (HP)x2  I.D (mm)  Thickness (mm)
V ≤ 14 Φ 25 3
14 V ≤ 88 Φ 30 3.5
88 V ≤ 175 Φ 40 4
175 V ≤ 334 Φ 50 4.5
334 V Φ 80 6
*If Slop is <1% than select next higher Size of Drain Pipe

How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-4


(F) Lighting Pollutions

  • Light pollution is an unwanted consequence of outdoor lighting and includes such effects as sky glow, light trespass, and glare. 
  • 30 to 50% of all light pollution is produced by roadway lighting that shines wasted light up and off target.

(1) Glare:

  • Glare is the condition of vision in which there is discomfort or a reduction in the ability to see significant objects. Glare affects human vision and it is subdivided into four components, Disability Glare, Discomfort Glare, Direct Glare and Indirect Glare.
  • By origin
  1. Direct Glare
  2. Indirect (reflected) Glare
  • By effect on people
  1. Disability Glare
  2. Discomfort Glare
  • Disability glare:
  • Disability glare is the glare that results in reduced visual performance and visibility.
  • Since disability glare reduces the ability to perceive small contrasts.
  • It can impair important visual tasks in traffic such as detecting critical objects, controlling headlights, and evaluating critical encounters, making glare a potential danger for road users.
  • LED light sources can provide very high luminance lev­els which may cause glare. For this reason, LED lamps are commonly equipped with diffusers to reduce this luminance.
  • Disability glare may vary for dif­ferent individuals and it can be calculated objectively.
  • In a particu­lar illuminated environment, the human eye will be able to detect differences in luminance down to a certain threshold. This threshold can be compared for a situa­tion in the same environment when a source of glare is added. By comparing these thresholds, the threshold increment can be derived.
  • Discomfort glare:
  • Discomfort glare is the glare producing discomfort. It does not necessarily interfere with visual performance or visibility.
  • As vertical light angles increase, discomforting glare also increases
  • Discomfort glare, on the other hand, is a subjective phenomenon and there is no method for its Rating.
  • Although the 9-point De Boer scale (ranging from “1” for “unbearable” to “9” for “unno­ticeable”) is the most widely used in the field of auto­motive and public lighting.
  • Direct Glare:
  • Direct glare is caused by excessive light entering the eye from a bright light source. The potential for direct glare exists anytime one can see a light source. With direct glare, the eye has a harder time seeing contrast and details.
  • A system designed solely on lighting levels, tends to aim more light at higher viewing angles, thus producing more potential for glare.
  • Exposed bright light source, for example a dropped lens cobra head or floodlight causes of direct glare.
  • Direct glare can be minimized with careful equipment selection as well as placement.

  • Figure illustrates two examples of exterior lighting that results in glare. 

  •  Fig shows how full cutoff luminaries (Shielded Luminaires) can minimize this direct glare. In exterior applications, use fully shielded luminaires that directs light downwards towards the ground.
  • Indirect Glare:
  • Indirect glare is caused by light that is reflected to the eye from surfaces that are in the field of view – often in the task area.
  • Indirect Glare can be minimized with the type and layout of lighting equipment. Direct the light away from the observer with the use of low glare, fully shielded luminaries.
  • As the uniformity ratio increases (poor uniformity), object details become harder to see.
  • For roadway lighting, good uniformity shows evenly lighted pavement. However, to meet small target visibility criteria, a non uniform roadway surface may be better.
  • There should be a balance between uniform perception and detecting objects on the road. Also, emphasis is put on horizontal surface uniformity. In reality, vertical surfaces may require more lighting in order to improve guidance.
  • How to Reduce Glare:
  • Glare and light trespass are more concern when installing floodlights.
  • Use shielded Light should be use to reduce Glare.
  • Higher mounting heights can more effective in controlling spill light, because floodlights with a more controlled light distribution (i.e., narrower beam) may be used, and the floodlights may be aimed in a more downward direction, making it easier to confine the light to the design area.
  • Lower mounting heights increase the spill light beyond the property boundaries. To illuminate the space satisfactorily, it is often necessary to use floodlights with a broader beam and to aim the floodlights in directions closer to the horizontal than would occur when using higher mounting heights.
  • Lower mounting heights make bright parts of the floodlights more visible from positions outside the property boundary, which can increase glare.

(2) Sky glow:

  • Sky Glow is brightening of the night sky caused by outdoor lighting.
  • Light that is emitted directly upward by luminaries or reflected from the ground is scattered by dust and gas molecules in the atmosphere, producing a luminous background. It has the effect of reducing one’s ability to view the stars in Night. 

  • How to Reduce Sky Glow
  • While it is difficult to accurately model sky glow, at this point it is presumed that the most important factors are light output and lamp spectral characteristics, light distribution from the luminaire, reflected light from the ground, and aerosol particle distribution in the atmosphere.
  • If the quantity of light going into the sky is reduced, then sky glow is reduced. Thus, to reduce sky glow by
  • By using full cutoff luminaires to minimize the amount of light emitted upward directly from the luminaire.
  • Reduce Lighting Level.
  • Make practice to Turn off unneeded lights
  • Limited Lighting hours in outdoor sales areas, parking areas, and signages
  • Installing Low-Pressure Sodium light sources, which allow astronomers to filter the line spectra from telescopic images.

 (3) Light Trespass:

  • Light trespass is condition when spill (Unwanted or Unneeded) light from a streetlight or floodlight enters a window and illuminates an indoor area.
  • How to Reduce Trespass
  • Select luminaries, locations, and orientations to minimize spill light onto adjacent properties.
  • Use well-shielded luminaries.
  • Keep floodlight aiming angles low so that the entire beam falls within the intended lighted area.

Difference between full cutoffs and fully shielded:

  • The full cutoff has is luminaries that have no direct up light (no light emitted above horizontal) and 10% of light intensity between 80° and 90°.
  • The term full cutoff is often substituted for the term fully shielded.
  • The both terms are not equivalent. Fully shielded luminaires emit no direct up light, but have no limitation on the intensity in the region between 80° and 90°
  • Luminaires that are full cutoff, cutoff, semi cutoff, and non cutoff , may also qualify as fully shielded.

  • There is also a confusing assumption that a luminaire with a flat lens qualifies as a full cutoff luminaries. While this may be true or not in some Lighting Fixtures case.

  • Fully shielded means, a lighting fixture constructed in such a manner that the bulb should be fully recessed into Fixture so that all light is directed downward below the horizontal.
  • The fixture is angled so the lamp is not visible below the barrier (no light visible below the horizontal angle).

(G) Selection of Luminas:

(1) Types of Lighting Source

  • Street Lights are mostly Low-pressure sodium (LPS), High-pressure sodium (HPS), Metal halide and Light emitting diodes (LED).
  • LPS is very energy efficient but emits only a narrow spectrum of pumpkin-colored light that some find to be undesirable.
  • LPS is an excellent choice for lighting near astronomical observatories and in some environmentally sensitive areas.
  • HPS is commonly used for street lighting in many cities. Although it still emits an orange-colored light, its coloring is more “true to life” than that of LPS.
  • Where it’s necessary to use white light, there are metal halide and LEDs.

  • High-pressure sodium lamps should be used for expressways, main roads, secondary roads and branch roads.
  • Low-power metal halide lamps should be used in mixed traffic roads for motor vehicles and pedestrians in residential areas.
  • Metal halide lamps can be used for motor vehicle traffic, such as city centers and commercial centers, which require high color identification.
  • Metal halide lamps, CFL lamps are used at Pedestrian streets in industrial areas, sidewalks in residential areas, and sidewalks on both sides of motorway traffic.
  • LED streetlights are more durable, longer lasting, efficiency, dimmable capacity and cost effective than traditional lights.
  • LED also enhances public safety by delivering superior visible light while providing the environmental advantage of using less energy.

(2) Color Rendering Index (CRI):

  • CRI Measures the ability of the artificial light to show or reproduce the colors of the road or objects on the road, relative to a natural light source.
  • The natural light source (the sun) has CRI of 100. The higher
  • This index the better the visibility will be. For all types of road CRI ≥ 70 is recommended.
  • Efficacy
  • At the low end LED efficacy starts at 70 lumens per watt (lm/W) and reaches as high as 150 lm/W.
  • While the mean efficacy for outdoor area fixtures is slightly lower than common indoor fixtures such as troffers and linear lighting about 100 lm/W for area lights compared to about 110 lm/W for troffers and linear fixtures this difference is not significant. It may be the result of outdoor area lights requiring more precise luminous intensity distributions and other factors unique to outdoor lighting.

(3) Fixture Protection:

  • When using sealed road lighting, the protection level of the light source cavity should not be lower than IP54.
  • For roads and places with dangerous environmental pollution and heavy maintenance, the protection level of the light source cavity should not be lower than IP65.
  • The degree of protection of the lamp electrical appliance cavity should not be lesser than IP43.
  • Lamps with excellent corrosion resistance should be used in areas or places with high levels of corrosive gases such as acid and alkali in the air.

(H) Effective Road Lighting:

  • Sufficient illumination.
  • Good uniformity.
  • No Glare.
  • Low consumption.
  • No Color Temperature abnormalities
  • No Zebra effect
  • Shielded lighting to ensure light is pointed downwards
  • Completely uniform illuminance.
  • No requirement for over lighting to obtain sufficient average illumination.
  • Absence of glare.
  • Absence of low angle radiation that causes sky glow.
  • Control of light trespass.
  • High redundancy.

Effective Road Lighting 

Features

Benefits

Proper pole height & spacing

 Provide uniform light distribution

Proper Luminaire aesthetics

 Blends in with the surroundings
Good maintenance

Reduce problems in lightning

High lamp efficiency

 Minimize energy cost

Life of Luminaire

Reduce lamp replacement cost
Good color rendering

 Helps object appear more natural

Proper light distribution

 Provide required light on roads

Cost effectiveness

 Lowers operating cost

Minimizing light pollution & glare

 Reduce energy use

Effective Energy-efficient Street Lighting Systems (NYSERDA, 2002)

Features

Benefits

Proper pole height and spacing Provides uniform light distribution, which improves appearance for safety and security Meets recommended light levels Minimizes the number of poles, reducing energy and maintenance costs
Proper luminaire aesthetics Blends in with the surroundings
High lamp efficacy and Luminaire efficiency Minimizes Energy cost
Life of the luminaire and other components Reduces lamp replacement costs
Cost effectiveness Lowers operating cost
High Lumen Maintenance Reduces lamp replacement costs
Good color rendering Helps object appear more natural and pleasing to the public Allows better recognition of the environment, improves security
Short lamp Re strike Allows the lamp to quickly come back after a power interruption
Proper light distribution Provides required light on the roads and walkways
Proper Cutoff Provides adequate optical control to minimize light pollution
Minimizing light pollution and Glare Reduces energy use
Automatic Shutoff Saves energy and maintenance costs by turning lamps off when not needed

Minimum Value of Street Light Designing

Descriptions

Min Value

Watt

400
Lumens Per Watt

80 To 140

Voltage

230Volt
Frequency

50 To 60Hz

Power Factor

  More than 95

THD

 < 20%
Life Hours

70,000 hours

Color Temperature

4000K  To  5000K

CRI

More than 75

Beam Angle / Beam Pattern

 Type 2,3,4,5
Operating Temperature

(-)25°C To (+)50°C

Working Humidity

10% To 90% RH
IP Rating

 IP67

Dimmable

0-10V

Optic Lens Material

High Polycarbonate (PMMA)
Forward Current

>600mA

Housing

IP65 – Aluminum Alloy and PC Lens

Dimension

 18.23″ X 13.58″ X 4.57″

Weight

 15.30 lbs – 34.39 lbs
Warranty

10 Years

 

 

How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-3


(C) Lighting Factor:

(1) Maintenance Factor (Light Loss Factors) (MF)

  • The Maintenance Factor (Light loss factor) is the combination of factors used to denote the reduction of the illumination for a given area after a period of time compared to the initial illumination on the same area.
  • The efficiency of the luminaire is reduced over time. The designer must estimate this reduction to properly estimate the light available at the end of the lamp maintenance life.
  • Luminaire maintenance factors vary according to the intervals between cleaning, the amount of atmospheric pollution and the IP rating of the luminaire.
  • However, it is proposed to consider maintenance factor of not less than 0.5 for LED Road lighting installations for IP66 rated luminaires.
  • The maintenance factor may range from 0.50 to 0.90, with the typical range between 0.65 To 0.75
  • These maintenance factor values shall be adopted for the purposes of producing the lighting simulation design.
  • The maintenance factor is the product of the following factors.
  • LLF = LLD x LDD x EF
  • Mostly We consider Maintenance factor from 0.8 to 0.9
  • We have to choose Maintenance factor carefully by increasing maintenance factor 0.5 the spacing of pole increasing 2 meter to 2.5 meter
Maintenance Factor Max. Spacing of Pole (Meter)
0.95 43
0.9 40.5
0.85 38
0.8 36

(a) Lamp Lumen Depreciation Factor (LLD)

  • As the lamp progresses through its service life, the lumen output of the lamp decreases. This is an inherent characteristic of all lamps. The initial lamp lumen value is adjusted by a lumen depreciation factor to compensate for the anticipated lumen reduction.
  • This assures that a minimum level of illumination will be available at the end of the assumed lamp life, even though lamp lumen depreciation has occurred. This information should be provided by the manufacturer. For design purposes, a LLD factor of 0.9 to 0.78 should be used.

(b)Luminaire Dirt Depreciation Factor (LDD).

  • Dirt on the exterior and interior of the luminaries and to some on the lamp reduces the amount of light reaching the roadway.
  • Various degrees of dirt accumulation may be anticipated depending upon the area in which the luminaire is located. Industry, exhaust of vehicles, especially large diesel trucks, dust, etc, all combine to produce the dirt accumulation on the luminaries.
  • Higher mounting heights, however, reduce the vehicle-related dirt accumulations.

LDD factor of 0.87 to 0.95 should be used. This is based on a moderately dirty environment and three years exposure time.

(c) Equipment Factor (EF).

  • Allows for variations inherent in the manufacture and operation of the equipment (i.e., luminaries, system voltage and voltage drop).
  • It is generally assumed to be 95%.

(2) Coefficient of Utilization (CU):

  • Coefficient of Utilization is the ratio of the luminous flux from a luminaire received on the surface of the roadway to the lumens emitted by the luminaire’s lamps alone.
  • Coefficient of Utilization should be maximum.
  • Coefficient of Utilization differs with each luminaire type, and depends upon mounting height, road width, and overhang.
  • The coefficient of utilization (K) should be over 30% or the utilance above 40% for the road, highway, square or enclosure. Luminaires or floodlights should not by placed far from the area to be lit or, where appropriate, light projection beyond the useful zone should be minimized (K = average maintained illuminance multiplied by the surface calculation and divided by the lumens installed).

Various Factors

Type Luminaries Dirt Depreciation Luminaire Lumen Depreciation Total Light Loss Factor
LED 0.9 0.85 0.765
HPS 0.9 0.9 0.81
LPS 0.9 0.85 (0.7 for 180W) 0.765 (0.63 for 180W)

Light Loss Factors

Type of Lamp Laminar Dirt description Light Loss Factor
HPS 0.88 0.74
Induction 0.88 0.62
LED 0.88 0.72

Maintenance factors

Cleaning intervals (months) Pollution category
High Medium Low
12 0.53 0.62 0.82
18 0.48 0.58 0.8
24 0.45 0.56 0.79
36 0.42 0.53 0.78
Maintenance Factors for 36 month cleaning interval
Factors IP5X IP6X
Pollution category Pollution category
Low Medium High Low Medium High
LMF 0.88 0.82 0.76 0.9 0.87 0.83
LLMF 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.89
MF 0.78 0.73 0.68 0.80 0.77 0.74

 

(E) Lighting Uniformities

(1) Lighting Uniformities

  • Uniformity is a description of the smoothness of the lighting pattern or the degree of the intensity of bright and dark areas on the road.
  • Uniformity is a measure of how evenly distributed the light on the road is, which can be expressed as Overall Uniformity (UO) and Longitudinal Uniformity (UL).
  • The uniformity ratio shall not exceed 4:1 and preferably should not exceed 3:1 except on residential streets, where 6:1 may be acceptable.

(a) Overall uniformity:

  • In design, the overall uniformity (UO) is expressed as a ratio of the minimum to the average luminance on the road surface of the carriageway within the calculation area.
  • UO=Lmin / Lave

  • It is a measure of how evenly or uniformly illuminate on the road surface.
  • A good overall uniformity ensures that all spots and objects on the road are sufficiently lit and visible to the motorist.
  • The industry accepted value for UO is 30 to 0.40.

(b) Longitudinal uniformity:

  • The longitudinal uniformity (UL) is expressed as the ratio of the minimum to maximum luminance along the center line of a lane within the calculation area.
  • UL=Lmin / Lmax.
  • Longitudinal uniformity is a measure to reduce bright and dark bands of light appearing on road lit surfaces. The effect can be somewhat hypnotic and present confusing luminance patterns.

  • It is a measure to reduce the intensity of bright and dark banding on road lit surface.
  • A good level of longitudinal uniformity ensures comfortable driving conditions by reducing the Pattern of high and low luminance levels on a road (i.e. zebra effect).
  • It is applicable to long continuous roads.

 Combination of Overall Uniformity and Longitudinal Uniformity:

  • The picture on the left shows a road with good UO while the picture on the right has low level of UO. The Road is more visible in the road with higher UO. Having higher UO allows the motorist to see the road clearly and anticipate potential road hazards (e.g. open manholes, road excavations, sharp objects on the road, people crossing the street).
  • The picture on the right shows a road with low level of UL demonstrating the ‘Zebra Effect’ while the picture on the left has high level of UL without ‘Zebra Effect’.
  • The ‘zebra effect’ can cause discomfort to motorists, posing a risk to road safety. Ensuring good level of uniformity can reduce the luminance level needed.

Lighting Levels

Category Eave ( LUX) Emin  LUX) Uniformity ratios
Emax : Emin Eave : Emin
Express & Main street 30 15 3:01 2.5:1
Suburban shopping street 25 10 5:01 3:01
Subsidiary street 15 10 5:01 3:01
Other streets 15 5 10:01 5:01

 

 Lux Level

Road Classification Area Classification Average  Lux Uniformity Ratio (Aver./Min.)
Arterial (Minor & Major) Commercial 12 3 to 1
Intermediate 9
Residential 6
Collector (Minor & Major) Commercial 8
Intermediate 6 4 to 1
Residential 4
Local Commercial 6
Intermediate 5 6 to 1
Residential 3
Alleys Commercial 4
Intermediate 3 6 to 1
Residential 2
Sidewalks (Roadside) Commercial 3 3 to 1
Intermediate 6 4 to 1
Residential 2 6 to 1
Pedestrian Ways 15 3 to 1

  

Illumination for Intersections

Functional Classification Average Maintained Illumination at Pavement by Pedestrian Area Classification in Lumen Uniformity
High Medium Low Eavg/Emin
Major/Major 37 28 19 32
Major/Collector 31 24 16 32
Major/Local 28 22 14 32
Collector/Collector 26 19 16 43
Collector/Local 23 17 11 43
Local/Local 19 15 9 65

 

Illumination for Pedestrian Areas

Maintained Illuminance Values for Walkways
Area Classification Description E avg (Lux) EV min (Lux) E avg/Emin
High Pedestrian Conflict Mixed Vehicle and Pedestrian 22 11 43
Areas Pedestrian Only 11 5 43
Medium Pedestrian Pedestrian Areas 5 2 43
Conflict Areas
Low Pedestrian Rural/Semi-Rural Areas 2 1 108
Conflict Areas Low Density Residential (2 or fewer dwelling units per acre) 3 1 65
Medium Density Residential (2.1 to 6.0 dwelling units per acre) 4 1 43
Pedestrian Portion of Pedestrian/Vehicular Underpasses Day 108 54 43
Night 43 22 32

 (2) Surround Ratio (SR):

  • Road lighting should be illuminate not only the road, but also the adjacent areas so motorists can see objects in the periphery and anticipate potential road obstructions (e.g., a pedestrian about to step onto the road).
  • The SR is the visibility of the road’s periphery relative to that of the main road itself.
  • As per industry standards, SR should be at least 50.
  • Figure show how road lighting should illuminate both the main road and its periphery.

How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-2


(C) Lighting Fixture:

(1) Fixture’s Mounting Height:

  • Higher mounting heights used in conjunction with higher wattage luminaries enhances lighting uniformity and typically reduces the number of light poles needed to produce the same illumination level.
  • In general, higher mounting heights tend to produce a more cost-effective design. For practical and aesthetic reasons, the mounting height should remain constant throughout the system.
  • The manufacturer’s photometric data is required to determine an appropriate mounting height.
  • Typical mounting heights for highway lighting purposes range from 30 ft to 55 ft (9.1 meter to 16.8 meter).
  • Mounting heights for light towers or High mast is typically 80 ft (24 m) or greater.
  • The installation height is too low, the glare of the lamp increases.
  • As the installation high increase, glare decreases, but the lighting utilization rate decreases.

 (2) Fixtures Classification:

  • The Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA, IES or BIS1981) provides classifications for luminaires according to their glare control and high-angle brightness.

(a) Full Cutoff (F):

  • A luminaire light distribution is designated as full cutoff (F) when Zero intensity at or above horizontal (90° above nadir) and Less than 10% of lamp lumens at or above 80°.
  • Full-cutoff fixtures reduce glare dramatically and eliminate direct up light by sending all their light toward the ground .This efficiency should translate into lower bulb wattages if the existing poles are used. However, some lighting engineers believe that to achieve the same illumination uniformity as their semi-cutoff counterparts, full-cutoff fixtures need to be mounted either on taller poles or closer together
  • Benefits:
  • Limits spill light on to adjacent property, reduces glare. No light is emitted directly from the luminaries into the sky.
  • Reduce Lighting Pollution.
  • Limitations:
  • May reduce pole spacing to maintain uniformity and increase pole and luminaire quantities.
  • Application:
  • Use for roadway, parking, and other vehicular lighting applications. Minimizes glare and light pollution and light trespass.

(b) Cutoff (C):

  • A luminaries light distribution is designated as cutoff (C) when Less than 2.5% Intensity at or above horizontal (90° above nadir) and Less than 10% of lamp lumens at or above 80°.
  • The direction of maximum intensity may vary but should be below 65º.
  • Benefits:
  • Small increase in high-angle light allows increased pole spacing.
  • Cutoff system is the reduction of glare.
  • Limitations:
  • May allow some up light (Sky Light) from luminaries. Typically a small overall impact on sky glow.
  • Application:
  • Interchange lighting and rural intersections due to the ability to reduce glare.
  • Use in applications where pedestrians are present. Provides more vertical illuminance than Full Cutoff luminaires.
  • Lamp rating should be less than 3200 lumens.
  • The cutoff design is where the luminaire light distribution is less than 25,000 lm at an angle of 90° above nadir (vertical axis) and 100,000 lm at a vertical angle of 80° above nadir.

 (c) Semi Cutoff (S) (Medium Beam Angle):

  • A luminaire light distribution is designated as Semi cutoff (S) when Less than 5% Intensity at or above horizontal (90° above nadir) and Less than 20% of lamp lumens at or above 80°.
  • The direction of maximum intensity may vary but should be below 75º.
  • Benefits:
  • High-angle light accents taller vertical surfaces such as buildings. Most light is still directed downward.
  • Limitations:
  • Little control of light at property line.
  • Potential for increased glare when using high wattage luminaries. Typically directs more light into the sky than cutoff.
  • Application:
  • Used for standard road lighting. Adequate glare control is obtained with reasonable spacing.
  • The principal advantage of the semi-cutoff system is a greater flexibility in sitting.
  • Use in pedestrian areas. If using in residential areas, provide with house side shields to minimize light trespass. Lamp rating should be less than 3200 lumens.
  • For the semi-cutoff design, the luminous flux numbers become 50,000 lm for 90° above nadir and 200,000 lm at a vertical angle of 80° above nadir.
  • Semi-cutoff fixtures create broad cones of light that permit wide spacing between poles. But such fixtures create harsh glare and send some light directly into the sky.

(d) Non Cutoff (N) (Higher Beam Angle):

  • A luminaries light distribution is designated as Non Cutoff (N) when Emit light into all directions.
  • No limitations on light distribution at any angle.
  • There is considerable output near the horizontal plane.
  • Benefits:
  • Uniform luminous surfaces such as internally illuminated signs or globes. Wattage should be limited. Suitable for sports lighting, facade, landscape or other applications where luminaires are tilted due to limitations in pole or fixture locations
  • Limitations:
  • Location and aiming are critical. Most likely of all categories to produce offensive brightness and sky glow.
  • Application:
  • Used in areas with a lot of background light. Non-cutoff luminaries shall not be used at lower mounting heights because of glare.
  • Use for decorative applications only. Lamp rating should be less than 3200 lumens.
  • “Full cut off” fixtures must be installed properly, so that the bottom of the fixture is level with the ground.
  • “Fully Shielded” fixtures do not allow any light to be emitted above the lowest light emitting
  • part, but do not restrict light output in the “glare” zone, 90-80 degrees below horizontal.

  (3) Fixtures Distributions (Optical System):

  • The Illuminating Engineering Society classified series of Fixture distribution patterns as Types I, II, III, IV, and V.

(a) Type I (Two-way):

  • The lateral distribution having a preferred lateral width of 15 degrees in the cone of maximum Lumen.
  • Illumination Pattern: Narrow, symmetric luminance pattern.
  • Fixture Location: This type is generally applicable to a luminaire location near the center of a roadway where the mounting height is approximately equal to the roadway width.
  • Type of Road: The luminaire is placed on the side of the street or edge of the area to be lighted. Most 1or 2 Lane Road
  • Application:

(b) Type II (Two Way) :

  • Light distributions have a preferred lateral width of 25 degrees.
  • Illumination Pattern: Slightly wider illuminance pattern than Type I.
  • Fixture Location: They are generally applicable to luminaires located at or near the side of relatively narrow roadways, where the width of the roadway does not exceed 1.75 times the designed mounting height.
  • Type of Road: The luminaire is placed on the side of the street or edge of the area to be lighted. It produces a long, narrow, oval-shaped lighted area which is usually applicable to narrower streets.

(c) Type III (Bat Wing) :

  • Type III light distributions have a preferred lateral width of 40 degrees.
  • Illumination Pattern: It produces an oval-shaped lighted
  • Fixture Location: This distribution is intended for luminaires mounted at or near the side of medium width roadways, where the width of the roadway does not exceed 2.75 times the mounting height.
  • Type of Road: The luminaire is placed on the side of the street or edge of area to medium width streets.

(d) Type IV (Forward throw “Asymmetric”):

  • Type IV light distributions have a preferred lateral width of 60 degrees.
  • Illumination Pattern: Widest luminance pattern.
  • Fixture Location: This distribution is intended for side-of-road mounting and is generally used on wide roadways where the roadway width does not exceed 3.7 times the mounting height.
  • Type of Road: very wide roadway (4 to 6 Lane)
  • Applications: Type IV often use at perimeters where Spill Light is required and there is no place to add Pole.

(e) Type V:

  • Type V light distributions have a circular symmetry of candlepower that is essentially the same at all lateral angles.
  • Illumination Pattern: It produces a circular, wider lighted area and is usually applicable to wide streets.
  • Fixture Location: The luminaries are mounting at or near center of roadways, center islands of parkway, and intersections.
  • Type of Road: very wide roadway (4 to 6 Lane)
  • Applications: Type V often applies to high-mast lighting.

 

GUIDE FOR LUMINAIRE LATERAL LIGHT TYPE AND PLACEMENT

Pole Arrangement Road Width Type of Distribution
One Side or Staggered up to 1.5 x Mounting Height Types II-III-IV
Staggered or Opposite Beyond 1.5 x Mounting Height Types III & IV
Center of the Roadway Mounting up to 2 x Mounting Height Type I

 

Type of Classification

AREA CLASSIFICATION  CUTOFF TYPE
Commercial Full Cutoff or Semi Cutoff
Intermediate Full Cutoff or Semi Cutoff
Residential Full Cutoff

 

 

THE SELECTION OF LUMINAIRE MOUNTING HEIGHTS

Lamp Lumens Mounting Height
≤20,000 Lumen  ≤35 Foot
20,000 To 45,000 Lumen 35 To 45 Foot
45,000 To 90,000 Lumen 45 To 60 Foot

 

Fixture Mounting Height

Type of LED Luminaries Type of Road Lamp mounting height from the floor level (Meters) Minimum Illumination Level (Lux) at centre of road Color of Illumination
250-260W Above 18 (20 To 22) 5000K-6500K
190W A1 Between 11 To 15 (20 To 22) 5000K-6500K
140-170W A1 Between 9 To 15 (18 To 20) 5000K-6500K
90-120W A2/B1 07 To 11 (15 To 18) 4300K-5600K
70-120W A2/B1 07- To 11 (15 To 18) 4300K-5600K
70-120W B1/B2 06 To 09 (15 To 18) 4300K-5600K
70-50W B1/B2/C1 7 To 9 (12 To 15) 4300K-5600K
45-50W B1/B2/C1 5 To 7 (12 To 15) 4300K-5600K
25-30W B1/B2/C1 5 To 7 (10 To 12) 4300K-5600K

 

Relationship between mounting height and spacing

Mounting Height Width of road 6 Meter to 7 Meter 9 Meter to 10.5 Meter 12 Meter to 14 Meter
Pole  arrangement Cut-off Type Semi Cutoff Type Cut-off Type Semi Cutoff Type Cut-off Type Semi Cutoff Type
8 Meter Single side 24 28
Staggered 24 28
Opposite 28 28
10 Meter Single side 30 30
Staggered 35 35 30 35
Opposite 35 40 30 35
12 Meter Single side 42 48 36 42
Staggered 36 42 36 42
Opposite 42 48 42 48

 

GUIDE FOR LUMINAIRE LATERAL LIGHT TYPE AND PLACEMENT

SIDE OF THE ROADWAY MOUNTING            CENTER OF THE ROADWAY MOUNTING
One Side
or Staggered
Staggered
or Opposite
Local
Street Intersection
Single Roadway Twin Roadways
(Median Mounting)
Local
Street Intersections
Road Width up to 1.5 x Mounting Height Road Width beyond1.5 x Mounting Height Road Width up to 1.5x Mounting Height Road Width up to 2x Mounting Height Road Width up to 1.5x Mounting Height (each pavement) Width up to 2.0x Mounting Height
Types Types Type Type Types Types
II, III, IV III & IV II (4-way) I II & III I (4-way) & V

 

How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-1


Introduction:

  • The basic idea of roadway and Highway lighting is to provide uniform level of illumination on road at horizontal and vertical level and provide a safe and comfortable environment for the night time driver.
  • Lighting design is basic idea of the selection and the location of lighting equipment to provide improved visibility and increased safety.
  • Street lighting systems should be designed in a way to avoid significant differences in luminance levels at the light source and on road areas. Furthermore, continuous variation of lighting levels can cause eye strain and should be avoided, in particular on long roads.
  • Road lighting provides visual conditions for safe, quick and comfortable movement of Road users.

Designing Factor for Street Light:

  • The factors that are playing a vital role in the Road Lighting are following.

(A) Type of Road

  • Road Classification

(B) Street Light Pole

  • Street Light Pole Arrangements
  • Placement of Pole

(C) Lighting Fixture

  • Lighting Fixture Mounting Height
  • Lighting Fixture Classification
  • Lighting Fixture Distributor

(D) Lighting Factors

  • Maintenance Factor
  • Coefficient of Utilization

(E) Lighting Uniformity

  • Lighting Uniformity
  • Surrounding Ratio

(F) Lighting Pollution

  • Glare
  • Sky Glow
  • Trespass

(G) Selection of Luminas

  • Type of Light
  • Watt
  • Lumen
  • CRI
  • Efficiency

(A) Classification As per Road:

Table 4 : Road Classes as per SP 72 (Part 8), IS 1944 (Part 1) and IS 1970

Class A1 Important routes with rapid and dense traffic where safety, traffic speed, and driving comfort are the main considerations
Class A2 Main Roads with considerable volume of mixed traffic, such as main city streets, arterial roads and thoroughfares.
Class B1 Secondary roads with considerable traffic such as main local traffic routes, shopping streets
Class B2 Secondary roads, with light traffic
Class C Lighting for residential and unclassified roads not included in previous groups
Class D Lighting for bridges and flyovers
Class E Lighting for town and city centers
Class F Lighting for roads with special requirement such as roads near air fields, railways and docks

 

TYPE OF ROAD

TYPE OF ROAD DENSITY OF TRAFFIC TYPE EXAMPLE
A Heavy and high speed motorized traffic Road with fixed separators, No crossings for very long distance National highways or state highways or called interstate highways, express ways or motor ways
B Slightly lower density and lower speed traffic termed Road which is made for vehicular traffic with adjoining streets for slow traffic and pedestrians as we find in metros Trunk road or major road in a city
C Heavy and moderate speed traffic Important urban roads or rural roads. they do not interfere with the local traffic within the town Ring roads
D Slow traffic, pedestrians Linking to shopping areas and invariably the pedestrians, approach road Shopping street, trunk road
E Limited speed. Slow or mixed traffic predominantly pedestrians, Local streets, collectors road

(B) Street Light Pole:

(1) Street Light Arrangement:

  • There are four basic types of street lighting layout arrangements used for streets or highways illumination.
  • (a) One Side Pole Layout:
  • Arrangement: In One Side Pole Layout, all luminaries are located on one side of the road.
  • Road Width: For narrower roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp be equal to or less than the effective width of the road surface.

  • Advantage: There are good indelibility and low manufacturing cost.
  • Disadvantage: The brightness (illuminance) of the road on the side where the lamp is not placed is lower than the on which side the light pole is placed.

(b) Both Side Staggered Pole Layout:

  • Arrangement: In the staggered arrangement, the luminaires are placed alternately on each side of the road in a “zig-zag” or staggered fashion.
  • Road Width: For Medium Size roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp is equal or 1.5 time the effective width of the road.

  • Advantage: This type of arrangement is better than single side arrangement.
  • Disadvantage: Their longitudinal luminance uni­formity is generally low and creates an alternating pattern of bright and dark patches. However, during wet weather they cover the whole road better than single-side arrangements.

(c) Both Side opposite Pole Layout:

  • Arrangement:
  • In Both Side Opposite Pole Layout, the luminaries located on both sides of the road opposite to one another.
  • Road Width: For Medium Size roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp will be 2 to 2.5 time the effective width of the road.

  • Advantage: op­posite arrangements may provide slightly better lighting under wet conditions.
  • Disadvantage:
  • If the arrangement is used for a dual carriageway with a central reserve of at least one-third the carriageway with, or if the central re­serve includes other significant visual obstructions (such as trees or screens), it effectively becomes two single-sided arrangements and must be treated as such.

 (d) Twin-central Pole Layout:

  • Arrangement: In Twin central arrangement, the luminaries are mounted on a T-shaped in the middle of the center island of the road. The cen­tral reserve is not too wide, both luminaires can contribute to the luminance of the road surface on either lane.
  • Road Width: For Large Size roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp be equal to the effective width of the road.

  • Advantage: This arrangement generally more efficient than opposite arrangements. However, op­posite arrangements may provide slightly better lighting under wet conditions.

(2) Proper Placement of Pole:

(i) Setback

  • Set back is the horizontal distance between the face of a light pole and the edge of traveled way.
  • Placing luminaries too close to a vertical surface results in hotspots at its base.
  • A setback of 3 foot to 4 foot works well for many applications.
  • Light from luminaires at extremely short setbacks grazes the surface and enhances its texture.
  • Light from luminaries at Long setbacks (Luminaries too far from a vertical surface) cause shadows at low levels.
  • Longer setbacks may be required for taller surfaces.
  • Scallops between fixtures become more noticeable as setback increases.
  • As setback (or spacing) distance increases, Light levels and uniformity decrease.

 

Set Back (BS 5489)

Design Speed Pole Set Back
50 Km/Hr 0.8 Meter
80 Km/Hr 1 Meter
100 Km/Hr 1.5 Meter
120 Km/Hr 1.5 Meter

 

(ii) Overhang

  • Overhang is the horizontal distance between the center of a luminaries mounted on a bracket (Nadir) and the adjacent edge of a carriage way or traveled way.
  • In general, overhang should not exceed one fourth of the mounting height to avoid reduced visibility of curbs, obstacles, and footpaths.

(iii) Outreach

  • Outreach is the horizontal distance between the center of the column and the center of the luminaries and is usually determined for architectural aesthetic considerations.

(iv) Pole Boom(Arm) Length:

  • The use of an arm places the light source closer to the traveled way while allowing the pole to be located further from the edge of the traveled way.
  • Depending on the application, Pole arms may be single and/or double mast arms or davit arms at the top of the pole.
  • There are several different arm lengths and styles of arms that are used.

(v) Arm Type:

  • Type A bracket an arm has a single member arm. It is used when the Arm length is less than 3.5 Meter.
  • Type B bracket arm has a two member truss arm design. Type B arms are used when the Arm length is more than 3.5 Meter.

(vi) Arm Lengths:

  • The length of the bracket arm is dependent upon a street width, pole location in relation to the curb and the presence of a median.
  • Type A (Single member bracket) arms are available in 2 Meter and 2.5 Meter lengths.
  • Type B (Twin member bracket) arms are available in 3.5 Meter, 4 Meter and 5 Meter Lengths.
  • Pole Height is 10 Meter: On typical streets that are 12 Meter’ wide from curb to curb, either a 2 Meter or 2.5 Meter arm is used. Depending on whether the pole is located behind the sidewalk or in the grass parkway between the sidewalk and the curb, the arm length may need to be increased to 4 Meter.
  • Pole Height is 13 Meter: On an undivided street, generally Meter, 2.5 Meter or 4 Meter arms are used.
  • Pole Height is 13 Meter: divided Street, typically have a 8 Meter wide center median to divide opposing lanes of traffic. On streets where the light poles are installed in a raised median, two 4 Meter arms oriented 180° apart are used.

(vii) Boom Tilt Angle (Boom Angle)

  • When the angle of tilt is larger, a uniformity ratio is increasing. Otherwise discomfort glare is increasing because strong light comes into driver’s eyes. So the angle of tilt shall be kept from 15° to 30°.

 

Tilt Angle

Pole Height Arm Length Arm Tile Angle
6 Meter 0.5 Meter 5°,10°,15°
8 Meter 1 Meter 5°,10°,15°
10 Meter 1.5 Meter 5°,10°,15°
>=12 Meter 2 Meter 5°,10°,15°

(viii) Pole Height:

  • Light poles for conventional highway lighting applications support luminaire mounting heights ranging from approximately 30 ft to 50 ft (9.1 m to 15.2 m).
  • Light towers for high-mast lighting applications generally range from 80 ft to 160 ft (24.4 m to 48.8 m) and are designed in multiple sections.
  • Weathering steel is a common material choice for light towers.
  • Ornamental light Poles used for local streets generally range in height for 8 ft to 15 ft (2.4 m to 4.5 m).

 

Pole Height Application
< 6 Meter Majority of side streets or alleys, Public gardens and parking Area to make people feel safe
8 Meter Urban traffic route , the multiplicity of road junctions
10 Meter Urban traffic routes
12 Meter Heavily used routes
18 Meter High mast lighting poles shall be installed at large-scale area such as airports, dockyards, large industrial areas, sports areas and road Intersections.

 (ix) Poles distance from Curb (Offset):

  • The lighting poles should not be installed very close to the pavement edge, because the capacity of the roadway is decreased and the free movement of traffic is obstructed.
  • For roads with raised curbs (as in urban roads) =Min. 0.3 meter and desirable 0.6 meter from the edge of raised curb.
  • For roads without raised curbs (as in rural roads)=Min. 1.5 meter from the edge of the carriageway, subject to min. 5.0 meter from the center line of the carriageway.
  • Height and overhang of mounting
  • The glare on eyes from the mounted lights decreases with increases in the height of mounting. Usually, mounting height range from 6 to 10m.
  • Overhangs on the lighting poles would keep the poles away from the pavement edges, but still allow the lamp to be held above the curb or towards the pavements.

(x) Pole to Pole Spacing

  • Spacing is the distance, measured along the center line of the road, between successive luminaries in an installation.
  • To preserve longitudinal uniformity, the space height ratio should generally be greater than 3.
  • Placing luminaries too far apart creates scallops at the base of the surface.
  • Spacing distances that are equal to 3 to 4 times the setback work well for many applications.
  • Placing luminaries closer together eliminates scallops.
  • Uniformity and light levels increase as spacing (or setback) distances decrease.
  • Spacing of luminaires normally does not exceed five to six mounting heights.
  • The span must not be more than 45 meters and for an average of 20-30 meters.

 

Lighting Pole details as per Road

Road Road Width (Meter) Pole Arrangement Lamp (Watts) Pole to Pole Spacing (Meters) Mounting Height, (Meters) Arm Length, (Meters)
Expressway 10 Twin Central 250 25 To 35 12 1.5
15 250 20 To 35 12 3.0
20 Opposite 250 20 To 45 12 1.5
25 250 20 To 40 12 1.5
30 250 20 To 30 12 1.5
36 250 20 To 25 12 1.5
40 250 20 To 22 12 1.5
Major 10 One-side 250 10 To 40 10 1.5
15 250 10 To 45 12 3.0
10 Twin Central 150 20 To 37 10 1.5
15 250 20 To 43 12 3.0
20 Opposite 150 20 To 40 10 3.0
25 250 20 To 45 10 1.5
30 250 20 To 45 10 1.5
36 250 20 To 45 12 3.0
40 250 20 To 45 2 3.0
Collector 10 One-side 150 10 To 40 10 1.5
15 250 10 To 50 12 3.0
10 Twin Central 150 20 To 40 10 1.5
15 150 20 To 37 12 3.0
20 Opposite 150 20 To 47 10 1.5
25 250 20 To 48 10 1.5
Rural
Highway
8 One-side 150 10 To 38 8 1.5
10 150 10 To 37 8 3.0
15 150 15 To 38 10 3.0
10 Twin Central 150 20 To 45 10 3.0
15 150 20 To 39 12 3.0
20 1.5
Minor 4 One-side 70 10 To 40 8 1.5
6 70 10 To 40 8 1.5
8 70 10 To 40 8 1.5
10 70 10 To 39 8 1.5
10 Twin Central 70 20 To 35 8 1.5
15 Staggered 70 10 To 20 8 1.5
15 Opposite 70 20 To 40 8 1.5

 

Illumination Level

Classification  Average Illumination (lux) Ratio Minimum to average illumination
Class A1 30 0.4
Class A2 15 0.4
Class B1 8 0.3
Class B2 4 0.3

 

Relationship between Mounting Height and Spacing of Fixtures

Pole Arrangement Cut-off type Semi cutoff type
Height Spacing Height Spacing
Single side >=0.7 X Width of Road <=3 X Fixture Mounting Height >=0.8 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height
Both Side Staggered >=1.5 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height >=1.7 X Width of Road <=4 X Fixture Mounting Height
Both Side Opposite >=0.5 X Width of Road <=3 X Fixture Mounting Height >=0.6 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height
Twin central >=0.7 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height >=0.8 X Width of Road <=4 X Fixture Mounting Height

 

 Pole to Pole Distance vs Lux Level

Pole Height Lamp Pole to Pole Distance Max. Illumination (Lux) Average (Lux)
4 Meter 15 watt 12 to 18 Meter 25 18
5 Meter 18 watt 14 to 20 Meter 30 18
6 Meter 30 watt 18 to 24 Meter 32 20
7 Meter 50 watt 21 to 28 Meter 32 20
8 Meter 100 watt 24 to 32 Meter 40 22
9 Meter 110 watt 27 to 35 Meter 34 20
10 Meter 140 watt 30 to 40 Meter 35 22
12 Meter 180 watt 30 to 40 Meter 33 23
14 Meter 200 watt 30 to 40 Meter 30 21

 

Lux Vs Mounting Height

Fixtures (Lux) Mounting Height
3000 to 10000 Lux 6 to 7 Meter
10000 to 20000 Lux 7 to  9 Meter
More than 20000 Lux More than 9 Meter

 

Road – Pole Details

Road Road Type Type of Pole positions Individual Carriageway Width (Meter) Central Verge (Meter) Pole Height above Ground (Meter) Maximum Pole to Pole Spacing (Meter) Clearance from Road Edge (Meter) Bracket Length (Meter) Tilt Angle Lighting Specifications Lamp (Watt)
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 10 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 11 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 12 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 14 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 16 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 12 0 12 35 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 14.5 0 12 35 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 16 0 12 40 0.6 Around one meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 18 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 21 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
Single Carriage Opposite 25 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 31 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux/ 0.4/
0.33
HP SV 400W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 10 11 30 0.6 < 1.0 meter  10° 25 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 9 11 30 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 25 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 7 11 30 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 25 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 7 11 30 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 25lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A3 Single Carriage Single Sided 7 8 20 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 20lux
/0.4
HP SV 150W
Pedestrian Pathway Single Carriage Single Sided 3m-6m 7.5 20-25 0.6 <0.5 meter  10° 20 lux
/0.4
HP SV 150W

 

Pole Data

Poles (Meter) Top Dia (mm) Bottom Dia (mm) Thickness (mm) Base plate (mm) Single Arm Bracket (mm) Double Arm Bracket (mm)
3 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
3 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
4 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
4 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
4 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
5 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
5 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
6 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
6 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
7 70 135 3 225x225x16 1000 NA
7 70 135 3 225x225x16 NA 1000
8 70 135 3 225x225x16 1000 NA
8 70 135 3 225x225x16 NA 1000
9 70 155 3 260x260x16 1000 NA
9 70 155 3 260x260x16 NA 1000
9 70 175 3 275x275x16 1000 NA
9 70 175 3 275x275x16 NA 1000
10 70 175 3 275x275x16 1000 NA
10 70 175 3 275x275x16 NA 1000
10 70 200 3 290x290x16 1000 NA
10 70 200 3 290x290x16 NA 1000
11 70 210 3 320x320x20 1000 NA
11 70 210 3 320x320x20 NA 1000
12 70 230 3 325x325x20 1000 NA
12 70 230 3 325x325x20 NA 1000

 

Recommended Levels of Illumination (BIS 1981) (IS 1944)

Type of Road Road Characteristics Road Width (Meter) Average Level of Illumination on Road Surface in Lux Ratio of Minimum/Average Illumination Ratio of Minimum/Max Illumination Type of Luminaire Preferred Luminas Mounting Height
A-1 Important traffic routes carrying fast traffic >10.5,12,14,16,18,20,30 30 0.4 33 Cutoff 9 To 10 Meter
A-2 Main roads carrying mixed traffic like city main roads/streets, arterial roads, throughways > 7 m up to 10 m 15 0.4 33 Cutoff 9 To 10 Meter
B-1 Secondary roads with considerable traffic like local traffic routes, shopping streets < 7m Colony Roads 8 0.3 20 Cutoff or semi-cutoff 7.5 To 9 Meter
B-2 Secondary roads with light traffic 4m,5m, 6m 4 0.3 20 Cutoff or semi-cutoff 7.5 To 9 Meter

Quick Reference Lighting Power Densities


 

Lighting Power Densities for Building Exteriors

ASHRAE 90.1-2004, Table 9.4.5

Tradable Surfaces LPD

Uncovered Parking Areas –Parking Lots and drives

0.15 W/ft²

Building Grounds –Walkways less than 10 feet wide

1.0 W/linear foot

Building Grounds –Walkways 10 feet wide or greater; Plaza areas; Special Feature Areas

0.2 W/ft²

Building Grounds –Stairways

1.0 W/ft²
Building Entrances and Exits –Main entries

30 W/linear foot of door width

Building Entrances and Exits –Other doors

20 W/linear foot of door width

Canopies and Overhangs –free standing and attached

1.25 W/ft²

Outdoor Sales –Open areas (including vehicle sales lots)

0.5 W/ft²
Outdoor Sales –Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to “open area” allowance

20 W/linear foot

 

Lighting Power Density

AS per CPWD

Building Area Type

LPD (W/m2)
Automotive Facility

9.7

Multifamily Residential

7.5

Convention Centre

12.9
Museum

11.8

Dining : Bar Lounge/ Leisure

14

Office

10.8
Dining : Cafeteria/ Fast Food

15.1

Parking Garage

3.2
Dining : Family

17.2

Performing Arts Theatre

17.2
Dormitory/ Hostel

10.8

Police/ Fire Station

10.8
Gymnasium  

11.8

Post Office/ Town Hall

11.8
Health care-Clinic

10.8

Religious Building

14
Hospital/ Health Care

12.9

Retail/ Mall

16.1
Hotel

10.8

School/ University

12.9
Library

14

Sports Arena

11.8
Manufacturing Facility

14

Transportation

10.8
Motel

10.8

Motion Picture Theatre

12.9
Warehouse

8.6

Workshop

15.1

 

Interior Lighting Power Space Density As per  Function Method

AS per CPWD

Building Area Type

LPD (W/m2)
Office-enclosed

11.8

Office-open plan

11.8
Conference/ Meeting/ Multipurpose

14

Classroom/Lecture/ Training

15.1
Lobby

14

• For Hotel

11.8

• For Performing Arts Theatre

35.5

• For Motion Picture Theatre

11.8

Audience/ Seating Area

9.7

• For Gymnasium

4.3
• For Convention Centre

7.5

• For Religious Buildings

18.3
• For Sports Arena

4.3

• For Performing Arts Theatre

28

• For Motion Picture Theatre

12.9
• For Transportation

5.4

Atrium-first three floors

6.5

Atrium-each additional floor

2.2
Lounge/ Recreation

12.9

• For Hospital

8.6
Dining Area

9.7

• For Hotel

14
• For Motel

12.9

• For Bar Lounge/ Leisure Dining

15.1
• For Family Dining

22.6

• Food Preparation

12.9
Laboratory

15.1

Restrooms

9.7

Dressing/ Lockers/ Fitting Room

6.5
Corridor/ Transition

5.4

• For Hospital

10.8
• For Manufacturing facility

5.4

Stairs-active

6.5

Active Storage

8.6

• For Hospital

9.7

Inactive Storage

3.2
• For Museum

8.6

Electrical/ Mechanical Facility

16.1
For Indoor Field Area

15.1

Warehouse

• For Fine Material Storage

15.1

• For Medium/ Bulky Material

Storage

9.7

Workshop

20.5

Convention Centre – Exhibit Space

14

Library

• For Card File & Cataloguing

11.8

• For Stacks

18.3
• For Reading Area

12.9

Hospital

• For Emergency

29.1

• For Recovery

8.6

• For Nurse Station

10.8

• For Exam Treatment

16.1

• For Pharmacy

12.9
• For Patient Room

7.5

• For Operating Room

23.7
• For Nursery

6.5

• For Medical Supply

15.1
• For Physical Therapy

9.7

• For Radiology

4.3
• For Laundry – Washing

6.5

Automotive – Service Repair Manufacturing Facility

7.5
• For Low Bay (<8m ceiling)

12.9

• For High Bay (>8m ceiling)

18.3
• For Detailed Manufacturing

22.6

• For Equipment Room

12.9
• For Control Room

5.4

Hotel/ Motel Guest Rooms

11.8
Dormitory – Living Quarters

11.8

Museum

• For General Exhibition

10.8

• For Restoration

18.3
Bank Office – Banking Activity Area

16.1

Retail

• For Sales Area

18.3

• For Mall Concourse

18.3

Sports Arena

• For Rising Sports Area

29.1
• For Court Sports Area

24.8

Parking Garage – Garage Area

2.2
Transportation

• For Airport – Concourse

6.5
• For Air/ Train/ Bus-Baggage Area

10.8

• For Ticket Counter Terminal

16.1

 

Exterior Lighting Power Space Density

AS per CPWD

Exterior Lighting Applications Power Limits
Building entrance (with canopy) 13 W/m2 of canopied area
Building entrance (without canopy) 90 W/linear meter of door width
Building exit 60 W/linear meter of door width
Building facades 2 W/m2 of vertical facade area2

 

 

 

Lighting Power Densities for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010: Table 9.6.11

Common  Space Type LPD (W/ft²)
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1.23
Corridor/Transition 0.66
Dining Area 0.65
Electrical/Mechanical 0.95
Food Preparation 0.99
Lobby 0.99
Lobby for Elevator 0.64
Lounge/Recreation 0.73
Office: Enclosed 1.11
Office: Open Plan 1.11
Restrooms 0.98
Stairway 0.69
Storage 0.63
Workshop 1.59

 

Lighting Power Densities Using the Building Area Method

ASHRAE-TABLE 9.5.1

Building Area Type LPD
Automotive facility 0.82W/ft2
Convention center 1.08W/ft2
Courthouse 1.05W/ft2
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 0.99W/ft2
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 0.90W/ft2
Dining: family 0.89W/ft2
Dormitory 0.61W/ft2
Exercise center 0.88W/ft2
Fire station 0.71W/ft2
Gymnasium 1.00W/ft2
Health-care clinic 0.87W/ft2
Hospital 1.21W/ft2
Hotel 1.00W/ft2
Library 1.18W/ft2
Manufacturing facility 1.11W/ft2
Motel 0.88W/ft2
Motion picture theater 0.83W/ft2
Multifamily 0.60W/ft2
Museum 1.06W/ft2
Office 0.90W/ft2
Parking garage 0.25W/ft2
Penitentiary 0.97W/ft2
Performing arts theater 1.39W/ft2
Police station 0.96W/ft2
Post office 0.87W/ft2
Religious building 1.05W/ft2
Retail 1.40W/ft2
School/university 0.99W/ft2
Sports arena 0.78W/ft2
Town hall 0.92W/ft2
Transportation –Airport 0.77W/ft2
Warehouse 0.66W/ft2
Workshop 1.20 W/ft2

 

Maximum Illumination Power Densities    

Building Code of Australia (BCA)

Lux Level of Rooms LPD
< 80 Lux: 7.5 Watt/M2
80 To 160 Lux 9 Watt/M2
160 To 240 Lux 10 Watt/M2
240 To 320 Lux 11 Watt/M2
320 To 400 Lux 12 Watt/M2
400 To 480 Lux 13 Watt/M2
480 To 540 Lux 14 Watt/M2
540 To 620 Lux 15 Watt/M2

 

 ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY

Building Code of Australia (BCA)

Space LPD
Auditorium, church and public hall 10 Watt/M2
Boardroom and conference room 10 Watt/M2
Carpark – general 6 Watt/M2
Carpark – entry zone (first 20m of travel) 25 Watt/M2
Common rooms, spaces and corridors in a Class 2 building 8 Watt/M2
Control room, switch room, and the like 9 Watt/M2
Corridors 8 Watt/M2
Courtroom 12 Watt/M2
Dormitory of a Class 3 building used for sleeping only 6 Watt/M2
Dormitory of a Class 3 building used for sleeping and study 9 Watt/M2
Entry lobby from outside the building 15 Watt/M2
Health-care – children’s ward 10 Watt/M2
Health-care – examination room 10 Watt/M2
Health-care – patient ward 7 Watt/M2
Health-care – all patient care areas including corridors 13 Watt/M2
Kitchen and food preparation area 8 Watt/M2
Laboratory – artificially lit to an ambient level of 400 lx or more 12 Watt/M2
Library – stack and shelving area 12 Watt/M2
Library – reading room and general areas 10 Watt/M2
Lounge area for communal use in a Class 3 building or Class 9c 10 Watt/M2
Museum and gallery – circulation, cleaning and service lighting 8 Watt/M2
Office – artificially lit to an ambient level of 200 lx or more 9 Watt/M2
Office – artificially lot to an ambient level of less than 200 lx 7 Watt/M2
Plant room 5 Watt/M2
Restaurant, Cafe, bar, hotel lounge and a space for the serving of food or drinks 18 Watt/M2
Retail space including a museum and gallery whose purpose is the sale of objects 22 Watt/M2
School – general purpose learning areas and tutorial rooms 8 Watt/M2
Sole-occupancy unit of a Class 3 building 5 Watt/M2
Sole-occupancy unit of a Class 9c building 7 Watt/M2
Storage with shelving no higher than 75% of the height of the aisle lighting 8 Watt/M2
Storage with shelving higher than 75% of the height of the aisle lighting 10 Watt/M2
Service area, cleaner’s room and the like 5 Watt/M2
Toilet, locker room, staff room, rest room and the like 6 Watt/M2
Wholesale storage and display area 10 Watt/M2

 

MAXIMUM ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY

Building Code of Australia (BCA)

Illumination LPD (Watt/M2)
Rooms to achieve
<80 lux 7.5
80 – 160 lux 9
160 – 240 lux 10
240 – 320 lux 11
320 – 400 lux 12
400 – 480 lux 13
480 – 540 lux 14
540 – 620 lux 15
>620 lux 80

 

Recommended LPD for Buildings

ECBC-2007

Building Area LPD (Watt/M2)
Automotive Facility 9.7
Convention Center 12.9
Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure 14.0
Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Food 15.1
Dining: Family 17.2
Dormitory/Hostel 10.8
Gymnasium 11.8
Healthcare-Clinic 10.8
Hospital/Health Care 12.9
Hotel 10.8
Library 14.0
Manufacturing Facility 14.0
Motel 10.8
Motion Picture Theater 12.9
Multifamily Residential 7.5
Museum 11.8
Office 10.8
Parking Garage 3.2
Performing Arts Theatre 17.2
Police/Fire Station 10.8
Post Office/Town Hall 11.8
Religious Building 14.0
Retail/Mall 16.1
School/University 12.9
Sports Arena 11.8
Transportation 10.8
Warehouse 8.6
Workshop 15.1

 

Lighting Power Density

BEC-Table 5.4

Building Area LPD (Watt/M2)
Atrium / Foyer with headroom over 5m 17
Bar / Lounge 14
Banquet Room / Function Room / Ball Room 20
Canteen 11
Car Park 5
Classroom / Training Room 12
Clinic 15
Computer Room / Data Centre 15
Conference / Seminar Room 14
Corridor 8
Court Room 15
Dormitory 8
Entrance Lobby 14
Exhibition Hall / Gallery 17
Guest room in Hotel or Guesthouse 13
Gymnasium / Exercise Room 13
Kitchen 13
Laboratory 15
Lecture Theatre 13
Library – Reading Area, Stack Area or Audio Visual Centre 15
Lift Car 11
Lift Lobby 11
Loading & Unloading Area 8
Office, enclosed (Internal floor area at or below 15m2) 13
Office, open plan or with internal floor area above 15m2 12
Passenger Terminal Building 14
Arrival Hall /Departure Hall with headroom not exceeding 5m 18
Arrival Hall / Departure Hall with headroom over 5m 13
Passenger circulation area
Patient Ward / Day Care 15
Plant Room / Machine Room / Switch Room 10
Public Circulation Area 13
Railway Station
Concourse / Platform / Entrance / Adit / Staircase, with headroom not exceeding 5 m 14
Concourse / Platform / Entrance / Adit / Staircase, with headroom over 5 m 18
Refuge Floor 11
Restaurant 17
Retail 17
School hall 14
Seating Area inside Theatre / Cinema /Auditorium / Concert Hall / Arena 10
Server Room / Hub Room 10
Sports Arena, Indoor, for recreational purpose 17
Staircase 7
Storeroom / Cleaner 9
Toilet / Washroom / Shower Room 11
Workshop 13

 

Lighting Power Densities

ASHRAE –TABLE- 9.6.1

Building Area Type LPD (W/m2) LPD (W/m2)
Atrium (First 40 ft in height ) 0.03
Atrium (Above 40 ft in height ) 0.02
Audience/Seating Area
Permanent  For auditorium 0.79
For Performing Arts Theater 2.43
For Motion Picture Theater 1.14
Classroom/Lecture/Training 1.24
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1.23
Corridor/Transition 0.66 Width<8 ft
Dining Area 0.65
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining 1.31
For Family Dining 0.89
Dressing/Fitting Room for Performing Arts Theater 0.40
Electrical/Mechanical 0.95
Food Preparation 0.99
Laboratory
For Classrooms                               1.28
For Medical/Industrial/Research 1.81
Lobby 0.90
For Elevator 0.64
For Performing Arts Theater 2.00
For Motion Picture Theater 0.52
Locker Room 0.75
Lounge/Recreation 0.73
Office
Enclosed 1.11
Open Plan 0.98
Restrooms 0.98
Sales Area 1.68
Stairway 0.69
Storage 0.63
Workshop 1.59
Automotive
Service/Repair 0.67
Bank/Office
Banking Activity Area 1.38
Convention Center
Audience Seating 0.82
Exhibit Space 1.45
Courthouse/Police Station/Penitentiary
Courtroom 1.72
Confinement Cells 1.10
Judges’ Chambers 1.17
Penitentiary Audience Seating 0.43
Penitentiary Classroom 1.34
Penitentiary Dining 1.07
Dormitory
Living Quarters 0.38
Fire Stations
Engine Room 0.56
Sleeping Quarters 0.25
Gymnasium/Fitness Center
Fitness Area 0.72
Gymnasium Audience Seating 0.43
Playing Area 1.20
Hospital
Corridor/Transition Width < 8 ft 0.89
Emergency 2.26
Exam/Treatment 1.66
Laundry/Washing 0.60
Lounge/Recreation 1.07
Medical Supply 1.27
Nursery 0.88
Nurses’ Station 0.87
Operating Room 1.89
Patient Room 0.62
Pharmacy 1.14
Physical Therapy 0.91
Radiology/Imaging 1.32
Recovery 1.15
Hotel/Highway Lodging
Hotel Dining 0.82
Hotel Guest Rooms 1.11
Hotel Lobby 1.06
Highway Lodging Dining 0.88
Highway Lodging Guest Rooms 0.75
Library
Card File and Cataloging 0.72
Reading Area 0.93
Stacks 1.71
Manufacturing
Corridor/Transition Width < 8 ft 0.41
Detailed Manufacturing 1.29
Equipment Room 0.95
Extra High Bay (>50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.05
High Bay (25–50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.23
Low Bay (<25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.19
Museum
General Exhibition 1.05
Restoration 1.02
Parking Garage
Garage Area 0.19
Post Office
Sorting Area 0.94
Religious Buildings
Audience Seating 1.53
Fellowship Hall 0.64
Worship Pulpit, Choir 1.53
Retail
Dressing/Fitting Room 0.87
Mall Concourse 1.10
Sales Area (for accent lighting) 1.68
Sports Arena
Audience Seating 0.43
Court Sports Arena—Class 4 0.72
Court Sports Arena—Class 3 1.20
Court Sports Arena—Class 2 1.92
Court Sports Arena—Class 1 3.01
Ring Sports Arena 2.68
Transportation
Air/Train/Bus—Baggage Area 0.76
Airport—Concourse 0.36
Audience Seating 0.54
Terminal—Ticket Counter 1.08
Warehouse
Fine Material Storage 0.95
Medium/Bulky Material Storage 0.58

 

 

 

Calculation of Crippling (Ultimate Transverse) Load on Electrical Pole


Calculation of Crippling (Ultimate Transverse) Load on Electrical Pole

  • Wind Speed = 89 Mile/Hr.
  • Height of Pole=10 Meter
  • Type of Pole =RCC
  • Height of Pole in Ground=1.5 Meter.
  • Pole Section on Bottom of Pole (Length x Width)=400mm x 150mm
  • Pole Section on Top of Pole (Length x Width)=127mm x 150mm
  • Conductor Mounting from top of Pole(g)=0.5 Meter.
  • Distance between Two Pole(s) =20 Meter.
  • No of Conductor on Pole(n)=3No’s
  • Size of Conductor(r)= 30mm

Calculations:

  • Wind Pressure = 00256 x 2x Wind Speed
  • Wind Pressure = 00256 x 2x 90 = 20.506 Pound /Sq.Foot
  • Wind Pressure(Wp) =4.882×20.506 = 100 Kgf/M2
  • Wind Load on Conductor/Span(ws)=2/3 x Wp x s x r x n
  • Wind Load on Conductor/Span(ws)=2/3 x 100 x 20 x 30 x 3 =120 Kg———–(I)
  • Height of Pole Above Ground (h)= 10-1.5 =8.5 Meter
  • Total Bending Movement at Ground Level due to Wind Load on All Conductor=ws x h
  • Total Bending Movement at Ground Level due to Wind Load on All Conductor(b)=120 x 8.5= 960 Kg.Mt
  • Equivalent Safe Working Load at said Meter from TOP of The Pole corresponding to Wind Load on All Conductors =b / (h- g) = 960 / 8.5-0.5 =120 Kg
  • Wind Load on Pole Surface above Ground Level (p1)=Wp x h /((l1+w1)/(2×1000))
  • Wind Load on Pole Surface above Ground Level (p1)=100×8.5/(400+150/2×1000) =233.75 Kg
  • Centre of Gravity of Tapering rectangular section of Pole(p2)= (h/3)x((l2+(l1*2))/(l1+l2))
  • Centre of Gravity of Tapering rectangular section of Pole(p2)= (5/3)x((127+(400×2)) /(127+400))=4.98Mt
  • Bending Movement at Ground Level due to Wind Load on Pole(p) =p1 x p2
  • Bending Movement at Ground Level due to Wind Load on Pole(p) =233.75×4.98=1164.98 Kg.Mt
  • Equivalent Safe Working Load at said meter from Top of The Pole corresponding to Wind Load on Pole(wt) = p /(h-g) =1164.98 / (8.5-0.5) = 62 Kg——————————(II)
  • Total Transverse Load at said meter from Top of The Pole (Due to wind Load on Conductors + Wind Load on Pole Surface) (T)=Ws + Wt = 120+145.62 =256.62 Kg
Type of Pole Safety Factor
Wooden Pole 3.5
RCC Pole 2.5
PCC Pole 2.5
Steel Tubular Pole 2
Rail/RSJ Pole 2
Struts (Steel Pole) 2.5
Struts (RCC/PCC) 3
PCC Pole for 33 KV 2

 

  • From Above Table Safety Factor=2.5
  • Total Transverse Load (Crippling Load) of Pole = T x Safety Factor
  • Total Transverse Load (Crippling Load) of Pole = 256 x 2.5 =664 Kg.
  • Total Transverse Load (Crippling Load) of Pole=664 Kg
Max. Length of Pole (Meter) Min. Ultimate Transverse Load from 0.6meter from Top (Kg)
17 3000
17 2300
17 2000
17 1400
16 1100
15 1050
14 1050
13 1000
12 800
11 600
10 500
9 300
8 200
7 200
6 200
5 150
4 150
3 150

 

  • From Above Table Min. Ultimate Transverse Load for 10 Meter Pole = 500 Kg and as per our calculation it is 664 Kg hence Selection of Pole if O.K

Results:

  • Calculated Transverse Load (Crippling Load) of Pole = 664 Kg
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