How to Design Efficient Street Lighting-Part-1


Introduction:

  • The basic idea of roadway and Highway lighting is to provide uniform level of illumination on road at horizontal and vertical level and provide a safe and comfortable environment for the night time driver.
  • Lighting design is basic idea of the selection and the location of lighting equipment to provide improved visibility and increased safety.
  • Street lighting systems should be designed in a way to avoid significant differences in luminance levels at the light source and on road areas. Furthermore, continuous variation of lighting levels can cause eye strain and should be avoided, in particular on long roads.
  • Road lighting provides visual conditions for safe, quick and comfortable movement of Road users.

Designing Factor for Street Light:

  • The factors that are playing a vital role in the Road Lighting are following.

(A) Type of Road

  • Road Classification

(B) Street Light Pole

  • Street Light Pole Arrangements
  • Placement of Pole

(C) Lighting Fixture

  • Lighting Fixture Mounting Height
  • Lighting Fixture Classification
  • Lighting Fixture Distributor

(D) Lighting Factors

  • Maintenance Factor
  • Coefficient of Utilization

(E) Lighting Uniformity

  • Lighting Uniformity
  • Surrounding Ratio

(F) Lighting Pollution

  • Glare
  • Sky Glow
  • Trespass

(G) Selection of Luminas

  • Type of Light
  • Watt
  • Lumen
  • CRI
  • Efficiency

(A) Classification As per Road:

Table 4 : Road Classes as per SP 72 (Part 8), IS 1944 (Part 1) and IS 1970

Class A1 Important routes with rapid and dense traffic where safety, traffic speed, and driving comfort are the main considerations
Class A2 Main Roads with considerable volume of mixed traffic, such as main city streets, arterial roads and thoroughfares.
Class B1 Secondary roads with considerable traffic such as main local traffic routes, shopping streets
Class B2 Secondary roads, with light traffic
Class C Lighting for residential and unclassified roads not included in previous groups
Class D Lighting for bridges and flyovers
Class E Lighting for town and city centers
Class F Lighting for roads with special requirement such as roads near air fields, railways and docks

 

TYPE OF ROAD

TYPE OF ROAD DENSITY OF TRAFFIC TYPE EXAMPLE
A Heavy and high speed motorized traffic Road with fixed separators, No crossings for very long distance National highways or state highways or called interstate highways, express ways or motor ways
B Slightly lower density and lower speed traffic termed Road which is made for vehicular traffic with adjoining streets for slow traffic and pedestrians as we find in metros Trunk road or major road in a city
C Heavy and moderate speed traffic Important urban roads or rural roads. they do not interfere with the local traffic within the town Ring roads
D Slow traffic, pedestrians Linking to shopping areas and invariably the pedestrians, approach road Shopping street, trunk road
E Limited speed. Slow or mixed traffic predominantly pedestrians, Local streets, collectors road

(B) Street Light Pole:

(1) Street Light Arrangement:

  • There are four basic types of street lighting layout arrangements used for streets or highways illumination.
  • (a) One Side Pole Layout:
  • Arrangement: In One Side Pole Layout, all luminaries are located on one side of the road.
  • Road Width: For narrower roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp be equal to or less than the effective width of the road surface.

  • Advantage: There are good indelibility and low manufacturing cost.
  • Disadvantage: The brightness (illuminance) of the road on the side where the lamp is not placed is lower than the on which side the light pole is placed.

(b) Both Side Staggered Pole Layout:

  • Arrangement: In the staggered arrangement, the luminaires are placed alternately on each side of the road in a “zig-zag” or staggered fashion.
  • Road Width: For Medium Size roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp is equal or 1.5 time the effective width of the road.

  • Advantage: This type of arrangement is better than single side arrangement.
  • Disadvantage: Their longitudinal luminance uni­formity is generally low and creates an alternating pattern of bright and dark patches. However, during wet weather they cover the whole road better than single-side arrangements.

(c) Both Side opposite Pole Layout:

  • Arrangement:
  • In Both Side Opposite Pole Layout, the luminaries located on both sides of the road opposite to one another.
  • Road Width: For Medium Size roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp will be 2 to 2.5 time the effective width of the road.

  • Advantage: op­posite arrangements may provide slightly better lighting under wet conditions.
  • Disadvantage:
  • If the arrangement is used for a dual carriageway with a central reserve of at least one-third the carriageway with, or if the central re­serve includes other significant visual obstructions (such as trees or screens), it effectively becomes two single-sided arrangements and must be treated as such.

 (d) Twin-central Pole Layout:

  • Arrangement: In Twin central arrangement, the luminaries are mounted on a T-shaped in the middle of the center island of the road. The cen­tral reserve is not too wide, both luminaires can contribute to the luminance of the road surface on either lane.
  • Road Width: For Large Size roads.
  • Pole Height: The installation height of the lamp be equal to the effective width of the road.

  • Advantage: This arrangement generally more efficient than opposite arrangements. However, op­posite arrangements may provide slightly better lighting under wet conditions.

(2) Proper Placement of Pole:

(i) Setback

  • Set back is the horizontal distance between the face of a light pole and the edge of traveled way.
  • Placing luminaries too close to a vertical surface results in hotspots at its base.
  • A setback of 3 foot to 4 foot works well for many applications.
  • Light from luminaires at extremely short setbacks grazes the surface and enhances its texture.
  • Light from luminaries at Long setbacks (Luminaries too far from a vertical surface) cause shadows at low levels.
  • Longer setbacks may be required for taller surfaces.
  • Scallops between fixtures become more noticeable as setback increases.
  • As setback (or spacing) distance increases, Light levels and uniformity decrease.

 

Set Back (BS 5489)

Design Speed Pole Set Back
50 Km/Hr 0.8 Meter
80 Km/Hr 1 Meter
100 Km/Hr 1.5 Meter
120 Km/Hr 1.5 Meter

 

(ii) Overhang

  • Overhang is the horizontal distance between the center of a luminaries mounted on a bracket (Nadir) and the adjacent edge of a carriage way or traveled way.
  • In general, overhang should not exceed one fourth of the mounting height to avoid reduced visibility of curbs, obstacles, and footpaths.

(iii) Outreach

  • Outreach is the horizontal distance between the center of the column and the center of the luminaries and is usually determined for architectural aesthetic considerations.

(iv) Pole Boom(Arm) Length:

  • The use of an arm places the light source closer to the traveled way while allowing the pole to be located further from the edge of the traveled way.
  • Depending on the application, Pole arms may be single and/or double mast arms or davit arms at the top of the pole.
  • There are several different arm lengths and styles of arms that are used.

(v) Arm Type:

  • Type A bracket an arm has a single member arm. It is used when the Arm length is less than 3.5 Meter.
  • Type B bracket arm has a two member truss arm design. Type B arms are used when the Arm length is more than 3.5 Meter.

(vi) Arm Lengths:

  • The length of the bracket arm is dependent upon a street width, pole location in relation to the curb and the presence of a median.
  • Type A (Single member bracket) arms are available in 2 Meter and 2.5 Meter lengths.
  • Type B (Twin member bracket) arms are available in 3.5 Meter, 4 Meter and 5 Meter Lengths.
  • Pole Height is 10 Meter: On typical streets that are 12 Meter’ wide from curb to curb, either a 2 Meter or 2.5 Meter arm is used. Depending on whether the pole is located behind the sidewalk or in the grass parkway between the sidewalk and the curb, the arm length may need to be increased to 4 Meter.
  • Pole Height is 13 Meter: On an undivided street, generally Meter, 2.5 Meter or 4 Meter arms are used.
  • Pole Height is 13 Meter: divided Street, typically have a 8 Meter wide center median to divide opposing lanes of traffic. On streets where the light poles are installed in a raised median, two 4 Meter arms oriented 180° apart are used.

(vii) Boom Tilt Angle (Boom Angle)

  • When the angle of tilt is larger, a uniformity ratio is increasing. Otherwise discomfort glare is increasing because strong light comes into driver’s eyes. So the angle of tilt shall be kept from 15° to 30°.

 

Tilt Angle

Pole Height Arm Length Arm Tile Angle
6 Meter 0.5 Meter 5°,10°,15°
8 Meter 1 Meter 5°,10°,15°
10 Meter 1.5 Meter 5°,10°,15°
>=12 Meter 2 Meter 5°,10°,15°

(viii) Pole Height:

  • Light poles for conventional highway lighting applications support luminaire mounting heights ranging from approximately 30 ft to 50 ft (9.1 m to 15.2 m).
  • Light towers for high-mast lighting applications generally range from 80 ft to 160 ft (24.4 m to 48.8 m) and are designed in multiple sections.
  • Weathering steel is a common material choice for light towers.
  • Ornamental light Poles used for local streets generally range in height for 8 ft to 15 ft (2.4 m to 4.5 m).

 

Pole Height Application
< 6 Meter Majority of side streets or alleys, Public gardens and parking Area to make people feel safe
8 Meter Urban traffic route , the multiplicity of road junctions
10 Meter Urban traffic routes
12 Meter Heavily used routes
18 Meter High mast lighting poles shall be installed at large-scale area such as airports, dockyards, large industrial areas, sports areas and road Intersections.

 (ix) Poles distance from Curb (Offset):

  • The lighting poles should not be installed very close to the pavement edge, because the capacity of the roadway is decreased and the free movement of traffic is obstructed.
  • For roads with raised curbs (as in urban roads) =Min. 0.3 meter and desirable 0.6 meter from the edge of raised curb.
  • For roads without raised curbs (as in rural roads)=Min. 1.5 meter from the edge of the carriageway, subject to min. 5.0 meter from the center line of the carriageway.
  • Height and overhang of mounting
  • The glare on eyes from the mounted lights decreases with increases in the height of mounting. Usually, mounting height range from 6 to 10m.
  • Overhangs on the lighting poles would keep the poles away from the pavement edges, but still allow the lamp to be held above the curb or towards the pavements.

(x) Pole to Pole Spacing

  • Spacing is the distance, measured along the center line of the road, between successive luminaries in an installation.
  • To preserve longitudinal uniformity, the space height ratio should generally be greater than 3.
  • Placing luminaries too far apart creates scallops at the base of the surface.
  • Spacing distances that are equal to 3 to 4 times the setback work well for many applications.
  • Placing luminaries closer together eliminates scallops.
  • Uniformity and light levels increase as spacing (or setback) distances decrease.
  • Spacing of luminaires normally does not exceed five to six mounting heights.
  • The span must not be more than 45 meters and for an average of 20-30 meters.

 

Lighting Pole details as per Road

Road Road Width (Meter) Pole Arrangement Lamp (Watts) Pole to Pole Spacing (Meters) Mounting Height, (Meters) Arm Length, (Meters)
Expressway 10 Twin Central 250 25 To 35 12 1.5
15 250 20 To 35 12 3.0
20 Opposite 250 20 To 45 12 1.5
25 250 20 To 40 12 1.5
30 250 20 To 30 12 1.5
36 250 20 To 25 12 1.5
40 250 20 To 22 12 1.5
Major 10 One-side 250 10 To 40 10 1.5
15 250 10 To 45 12 3.0
10 Twin Central 150 20 To 37 10 1.5
15 250 20 To 43 12 3.0
20 Opposite 150 20 To 40 10 3.0
25 250 20 To 45 10 1.5
30 250 20 To 45 10 1.5
36 250 20 To 45 12 3.0
40 250 20 To 45 2 3.0
Collector 10 One-side 150 10 To 40 10 1.5
15 250 10 To 50 12 3.0
10 Twin Central 150 20 To 40 10 1.5
15 150 20 To 37 12 3.0
20 Opposite 150 20 To 47 10 1.5
25 250 20 To 48 10 1.5
Rural
Highway
8 One-side 150 10 To 38 8 1.5
10 150 10 To 37 8 3.0
15 150 15 To 38 10 3.0
10 Twin Central 150 20 To 45 10 3.0
15 150 20 To 39 12 3.0
20 1.5
Minor 4 One-side 70 10 To 40 8 1.5
6 70 10 To 40 8 1.5
8 70 10 To 40 8 1.5
10 70 10 To 39 8 1.5
10 Twin Central 70 20 To 35 8 1.5
15 Staggered 70 10 To 20 8 1.5
15 Opposite 70 20 To 40 8 1.5

 

Illumination Level

Classification  Average Illumination (lux) Ratio Minimum to average illumination
Class A1 30 0.4
Class A2 15 0.4
Class B1 8 0.3
Class B2 4 0.3

 

Relationship between Mounting Height and Spacing of Fixtures

Pole Arrangement Cut-off type Semi cutoff type
Height Spacing Height Spacing
Single side >=0.7 X Width of Road <=3 X Fixture Mounting Height >=0.8 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height
Both Side Staggered >=1.5 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height >=1.7 X Width of Road <=4 X Fixture Mounting Height
Both Side Opposite >=0.5 X Width of Road <=3 X Fixture Mounting Height >=0.6 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height
Twin central >=0.7 X Width of Road <=3.5 X Fixture Mounting Height >=0.8 X Width of Road <=4 X Fixture Mounting Height

 

 Pole to Pole Distance vs Lux Level

Pole Height Lamp Pole to Pole Distance Max. Illumination (Lux) Average (Lux)
4 Meter 15 watt 12 to 18 Meter 25 18
5 Meter 18 watt 14 to 20 Meter 30 18
6 Meter 30 watt 18 to 24 Meter 32 20
7 Meter 50 watt 21 to 28 Meter 32 20
8 Meter 100 watt 24 to 32 Meter 40 22
9 Meter 110 watt 27 to 35 Meter 34 20
10 Meter 140 watt 30 to 40 Meter 35 22
12 Meter 180 watt 30 to 40 Meter 33 23
14 Meter 200 watt 30 to 40 Meter 30 21

 

Lux Vs Mounting Height

Fixtures (Lux) Mounting Height
3000 to 10000 Lux 6 to 7 Meter
10000 to 20000 Lux 7 to  9 Meter
More than 20000 Lux More than 9 Meter

 

Road – Pole Details

Road Road Type Type of Pole positions Individual Carriageway Width (Meter) Central Verge (Meter) Pole Height above Ground (Meter) Maximum Pole to Pole Spacing (Meter) Clearance from Road Edge (Meter) Bracket Length (Meter) Tilt Angle Lighting Specifications Lamp (Watt)
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 10 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 11 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 12 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 14 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Dual Carriage Central Verge 16 1.2 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 12 0 12 35 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 14.5 0 12 35 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 16 0 12 40 0.6 Around one meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 18 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 21 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
Single Carriage Opposite 25 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 400W
A1 Single Carriage Opposite 31 0 12 40 0.6 1 meter  10° 35 lux/ 0.4/
0.33
HP SV 400W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 10 11 30 0.6 < 1.0 meter  10° 25 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 9 11 30 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 25 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 7 11 30 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 25 lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A2 Single Carriage Single Sided 7 11 30 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 25lux
/0.4/ 0.33
HP SV 250W
A3 Single Carriage Single Sided 7 8 20 0.6 < 0.5 meter  10° 20lux
/0.4
HP SV 150W
Pedestrian Pathway Single Carriage Single Sided 3m-6m 7.5 20-25 0.6 <0.5 meter  10° 20 lux
/0.4
HP SV 150W

 

Pole Data

Poles (Meter) Top Dia (mm) Bottom Dia (mm) Thickness (mm) Base plate (mm) Single Arm Bracket (mm) Double Arm Bracket (mm)
3 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
3 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
4 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
4 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
4 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
5 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
5 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
6 70 130 3 200x200x12 NA 1000
6 70 130 3 200x200x12 1000 NA
7 70 135 3 225x225x16 1000 NA
7 70 135 3 225x225x16 NA 1000
8 70 135 3 225x225x16 1000 NA
8 70 135 3 225x225x16 NA 1000
9 70 155 3 260x260x16 1000 NA
9 70 155 3 260x260x16 NA 1000
9 70 175 3 275x275x16 1000 NA
9 70 175 3 275x275x16 NA 1000
10 70 175 3 275x275x16 1000 NA
10 70 175 3 275x275x16 NA 1000
10 70 200 3 290x290x16 1000 NA
10 70 200 3 290x290x16 NA 1000
11 70 210 3 320x320x20 1000 NA
11 70 210 3 320x320x20 NA 1000
12 70 230 3 325x325x20 1000 NA
12 70 230 3 325x325x20 NA 1000

 

Recommended Levels of Illumination (BIS 1981) (IS 1944)

Type of Road Road Characteristics Road Width (Meter) Average Level of Illumination on Road Surface in Lux Ratio of Minimum/Average Illumination Ratio of Minimum/Max Illumination Type of Luminaire Preferred Luminas Mounting Height
A-1 Important traffic routes carrying fast traffic >10.5,12,14,16,18,20,30 30 0.4 33 Cutoff 9 To 10 Meter
A-2 Main roads carrying mixed traffic like city main roads/streets, arterial roads, throughways > 7 m up to 10 m 15 0.4 33 Cutoff 9 To 10 Meter
B-1 Secondary roads with considerable traffic like local traffic routes, shopping streets < 7m Colony Roads 8 0.3 20 Cutoff or semi-cutoff 7.5 To 9 Meter
B-2 Secondary roads with light traffic 4m,5m, 6m 4 0.3 20 Cutoff or semi-cutoff 7.5 To 9 Meter

Quick Reference Lighting Power Densities


 

Lighting Power Densities for Building Exteriors

ASHRAE 90.1-2004, Table 9.4.5

Tradable Surfaces LPD

Uncovered Parking Areas –Parking Lots and drives

0.15 W/ft²

Building Grounds –Walkways less than 10 feet wide

1.0 W/linear foot

Building Grounds –Walkways 10 feet wide or greater; Plaza areas; Special Feature Areas

0.2 W/ft²

Building Grounds –Stairways

1.0 W/ft²
Building Entrances and Exits –Main entries

30 W/linear foot of door width

Building Entrances and Exits –Other doors

20 W/linear foot of door width

Canopies and Overhangs –free standing and attached

1.25 W/ft²

Outdoor Sales –Open areas (including vehicle sales lots)

0.5 W/ft²
Outdoor Sales –Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to “open area” allowance

20 W/linear foot

 

Lighting Power Density

AS per CPWD

Building Area Type

LPD (W/m2)
Automotive Facility

9.7

Multifamily Residential

7.5

Convention Centre

12.9
Museum

11.8

Dining : Bar Lounge/ Leisure

14

Office

10.8
Dining : Cafeteria/ Fast Food

15.1

Parking Garage

3.2
Dining : Family

17.2

Performing Arts Theatre

17.2
Dormitory/ Hostel

10.8

Police/ Fire Station

10.8
Gymnasium  

11.8

Post Office/ Town Hall

11.8
Health care-Clinic

10.8

Religious Building

14
Hospital/ Health Care

12.9

Retail/ Mall

16.1
Hotel

10.8

School/ University

12.9
Library

14

Sports Arena

11.8
Manufacturing Facility

14

Transportation

10.8
Motel

10.8

Motion Picture Theatre

12.9
Warehouse

8.6

Workshop

15.1

 

Interior Lighting Power Space Density As per  Function Method

AS per CPWD

Building Area Type

LPD (W/m2)
Office-enclosed

11.8

Office-open plan

11.8
Conference/ Meeting/ Multipurpose

14

Classroom/Lecture/ Training

15.1
Lobby

14

• For Hotel

11.8

• For Performing Arts Theatre

35.5

• For Motion Picture Theatre

11.8

Audience/ Seating Area

9.7

• For Gymnasium

4.3
• For Convention Centre

7.5

• For Religious Buildings

18.3
• For Sports Arena

4.3

• For Performing Arts Theatre

28

• For Motion Picture Theatre

12.9
• For Transportation

5.4

Atrium-first three floors

6.5

Atrium-each additional floor

2.2
Lounge/ Recreation

12.9

• For Hospital

8.6
Dining Area

9.7

• For Hotel

14
• For Motel

12.9

• For Bar Lounge/ Leisure Dining

15.1
• For Family Dining

22.6

• Food Preparation

12.9
Laboratory

15.1

Restrooms

9.7

Dressing/ Lockers/ Fitting Room

6.5
Corridor/ Transition

5.4

• For Hospital

10.8
• For Manufacturing facility

5.4

Stairs-active

6.5

Active Storage

8.6

• For Hospital

9.7

Inactive Storage

3.2
• For Museum

8.6

Electrical/ Mechanical Facility

16.1
For Indoor Field Area

15.1

Warehouse

• For Fine Material Storage

15.1

• For Medium/ Bulky Material

Storage

9.7

Workshop

20.5

Convention Centre – Exhibit Space

14

Library

• For Card File & Cataloguing

11.8

• For Stacks

18.3
• For Reading Area

12.9

Hospital

• For Emergency

29.1

• For Recovery

8.6

• For Nurse Station

10.8

• For Exam Treatment

16.1

• For Pharmacy

12.9
• For Patient Room

7.5

• For Operating Room

23.7
• For Nursery

6.5

• For Medical Supply

15.1
• For Physical Therapy

9.7

• For Radiology

4.3
• For Laundry – Washing

6.5

Automotive – Service Repair Manufacturing Facility

7.5
• For Low Bay (<8m ceiling)

12.9

• For High Bay (>8m ceiling)

18.3
• For Detailed Manufacturing

22.6

• For Equipment Room

12.9
• For Control Room

5.4

Hotel/ Motel Guest Rooms

11.8
Dormitory – Living Quarters

11.8

Museum

• For General Exhibition

10.8

• For Restoration

18.3
Bank Office – Banking Activity Area

16.1

Retail

• For Sales Area

18.3

• For Mall Concourse

18.3

Sports Arena

• For Rising Sports Area

29.1
• For Court Sports Area

24.8

Parking Garage – Garage Area

2.2
Transportation

• For Airport – Concourse

6.5
• For Air/ Train/ Bus-Baggage Area

10.8

• For Ticket Counter Terminal

16.1

 

Exterior Lighting Power Space Density

AS per CPWD

Exterior Lighting Applications Power Limits
Building entrance (with canopy) 13 W/m2 of canopied area
Building entrance (without canopy) 90 W/linear meter of door width
Building exit 60 W/linear meter of door width
Building facades 2 W/m2 of vertical facade area2

 

 

 

Lighting Power Densities for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings

ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2010: Table 9.6.11

Common  Space Type LPD (W/ft²)
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1.23
Corridor/Transition 0.66
Dining Area 0.65
Electrical/Mechanical 0.95
Food Preparation 0.99
Lobby 0.99
Lobby for Elevator 0.64
Lounge/Recreation 0.73
Office: Enclosed 1.11
Office: Open Plan 1.11
Restrooms 0.98
Stairway 0.69
Storage 0.63
Workshop 1.59

 

Lighting Power Densities Using the Building Area Method

ASHRAE-TABLE 9.5.1

Building Area Type LPD
Automotive facility 0.82W/ft2
Convention center 1.08W/ft2
Courthouse 1.05W/ft2
Dining: bar lounge/leisure 0.99W/ft2
Dining: cafeteria/fast food 0.90W/ft2
Dining: family 0.89W/ft2
Dormitory 0.61W/ft2
Exercise center 0.88W/ft2
Fire station 0.71W/ft2
Gymnasium 1.00W/ft2
Health-care clinic 0.87W/ft2
Hospital 1.21W/ft2
Hotel 1.00W/ft2
Library 1.18W/ft2
Manufacturing facility 1.11W/ft2
Motel 0.88W/ft2
Motion picture theater 0.83W/ft2
Multifamily 0.60W/ft2
Museum 1.06W/ft2
Office 0.90W/ft2
Parking garage 0.25W/ft2
Penitentiary 0.97W/ft2
Performing arts theater 1.39W/ft2
Police station 0.96W/ft2
Post office 0.87W/ft2
Religious building 1.05W/ft2
Retail 1.40W/ft2
School/university 0.99W/ft2
Sports arena 0.78W/ft2
Town hall 0.92W/ft2
Transportation –Airport 0.77W/ft2
Warehouse 0.66W/ft2
Workshop 1.20 W/ft2

 

Maximum Illumination Power Densities    

Building Code of Australia (BCA)

Lux Level of Rooms LPD
< 80 Lux: 7.5 Watt/M2
80 To 160 Lux 9 Watt/M2
160 To 240 Lux 10 Watt/M2
240 To 320 Lux 11 Watt/M2
320 To 400 Lux 12 Watt/M2
400 To 480 Lux 13 Watt/M2
480 To 540 Lux 14 Watt/M2
540 To 620 Lux 15 Watt/M2

 

 ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY

Building Code of Australia (BCA)

Space LPD
Auditorium, church and public hall 10 Watt/M2
Boardroom and conference room 10 Watt/M2
Carpark – general 6 Watt/M2
Carpark – entry zone (first 20m of travel) 25 Watt/M2
Common rooms, spaces and corridors in a Class 2 building 8 Watt/M2
Control room, switch room, and the like 9 Watt/M2
Corridors 8 Watt/M2
Courtroom 12 Watt/M2
Dormitory of a Class 3 building used for sleeping only 6 Watt/M2
Dormitory of a Class 3 building used for sleeping and study 9 Watt/M2
Entry lobby from outside the building 15 Watt/M2
Health-care – children’s ward 10 Watt/M2
Health-care – examination room 10 Watt/M2
Health-care – patient ward 7 Watt/M2
Health-care – all patient care areas including corridors 13 Watt/M2
Kitchen and food preparation area 8 Watt/M2
Laboratory – artificially lit to an ambient level of 400 lx or more 12 Watt/M2
Library – stack and shelving area 12 Watt/M2
Library – reading room and general areas 10 Watt/M2
Lounge area for communal use in a Class 3 building or Class 9c 10 Watt/M2
Museum and gallery – circulation, cleaning and service lighting 8 Watt/M2
Office – artificially lit to an ambient level of 200 lx or more 9 Watt/M2
Office – artificially lot to an ambient level of less than 200 lx 7 Watt/M2
Plant room 5 Watt/M2
Restaurant, Cafe, bar, hotel lounge and a space for the serving of food or drinks 18 Watt/M2
Retail space including a museum and gallery whose purpose is the sale of objects 22 Watt/M2
School – general purpose learning areas and tutorial rooms 8 Watt/M2
Sole-occupancy unit of a Class 3 building 5 Watt/M2
Sole-occupancy unit of a Class 9c building 7 Watt/M2
Storage with shelving no higher than 75% of the height of the aisle lighting 8 Watt/M2
Storage with shelving higher than 75% of the height of the aisle lighting 10 Watt/M2
Service area, cleaner’s room and the like 5 Watt/M2
Toilet, locker room, staff room, rest room and the like 6 Watt/M2
Wholesale storage and display area 10 Watt/M2

 

MAXIMUM ILLUMINATION POWER DENSITY

Building Code of Australia (BCA)

Illumination LPD (Watt/M2)
Rooms to achieve
<80 lux 7.5
80 – 160 lux 9
160 – 240 lux 10
240 – 320 lux 11
320 – 400 lux 12
400 – 480 lux 13
480 – 540 lux 14
540 – 620 lux 15
>620 lux 80

 

Recommended LPD for Buildings

ECBC-2007

Building Area LPD (Watt/M2)
Automotive Facility 9.7
Convention Center 12.9
Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure 14.0
Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Food 15.1
Dining: Family 17.2
Dormitory/Hostel 10.8
Gymnasium 11.8
Healthcare-Clinic 10.8
Hospital/Health Care 12.9
Hotel 10.8
Library 14.0
Manufacturing Facility 14.0
Motel 10.8
Motion Picture Theater 12.9
Multifamily Residential 7.5
Museum 11.8
Office 10.8
Parking Garage 3.2
Performing Arts Theatre 17.2
Police/Fire Station 10.8
Post Office/Town Hall 11.8
Religious Building 14.0
Retail/Mall 16.1
School/University 12.9
Sports Arena 11.8
Transportation 10.8
Warehouse 8.6
Workshop 15.1

 

Lighting Power Density

BEC-Table 5.4

Building Area LPD (Watt/M2)
Atrium / Foyer with headroom over 5m 17
Bar / Lounge 14
Banquet Room / Function Room / Ball Room 20
Canteen 11
Car Park 5
Classroom / Training Room 12
Clinic 15
Computer Room / Data Centre 15
Conference / Seminar Room 14
Corridor 8
Court Room 15
Dormitory 8
Entrance Lobby 14
Exhibition Hall / Gallery 17
Guest room in Hotel or Guesthouse 13
Gymnasium / Exercise Room 13
Kitchen 13
Laboratory 15
Lecture Theatre 13
Library – Reading Area, Stack Area or Audio Visual Centre 15
Lift Car 11
Lift Lobby 11
Loading & Unloading Area 8
Office, enclosed (Internal floor area at or below 15m2) 13
Office, open plan or with internal floor area above 15m2 12
Passenger Terminal Building 14
Arrival Hall /Departure Hall with headroom not exceeding 5m 18
Arrival Hall / Departure Hall with headroom over 5m 13
Passenger circulation area
Patient Ward / Day Care 15
Plant Room / Machine Room / Switch Room 10
Public Circulation Area 13
Railway Station
Concourse / Platform / Entrance / Adit / Staircase, with headroom not exceeding 5 m 14
Concourse / Platform / Entrance / Adit / Staircase, with headroom over 5 m 18
Refuge Floor 11
Restaurant 17
Retail 17
School hall 14
Seating Area inside Theatre / Cinema /Auditorium / Concert Hall / Arena 10
Server Room / Hub Room 10
Sports Arena, Indoor, for recreational purpose 17
Staircase 7
Storeroom / Cleaner 9
Toilet / Washroom / Shower Room 11
Workshop 13

 

Lighting Power Densities

ASHRAE –TABLE- 9.6.1

Building Area Type LPD (W/m2) LPD (W/m2)
Atrium (First 40 ft in height ) 0.03
Atrium (Above 40 ft in height ) 0.02
Audience/Seating Area
Permanent  For auditorium 0.79
For Performing Arts Theater 2.43
For Motion Picture Theater 1.14
Classroom/Lecture/Training 1.24
Conference/Meeting/Multipurpose 1.23
Corridor/Transition 0.66 Width<8 ft
Dining Area 0.65
For Bar Lounge/Leisure Dining 1.31
For Family Dining 0.89
Dressing/Fitting Room for Performing Arts Theater 0.40
Electrical/Mechanical 0.95
Food Preparation 0.99
Laboratory
For Classrooms                               1.28
For Medical/Industrial/Research 1.81
Lobby 0.90
For Elevator 0.64
For Performing Arts Theater 2.00
For Motion Picture Theater 0.52
Locker Room 0.75
Lounge/Recreation 0.73
Office
Enclosed 1.11
Open Plan 0.98
Restrooms 0.98
Sales Area 1.68
Stairway 0.69
Storage 0.63
Workshop 1.59
Automotive
Service/Repair 0.67
Bank/Office
Banking Activity Area 1.38
Convention Center
Audience Seating 0.82
Exhibit Space 1.45
Courthouse/Police Station/Penitentiary
Courtroom 1.72
Confinement Cells 1.10
Judges’ Chambers 1.17
Penitentiary Audience Seating 0.43
Penitentiary Classroom 1.34
Penitentiary Dining 1.07
Dormitory
Living Quarters 0.38
Fire Stations
Engine Room 0.56
Sleeping Quarters 0.25
Gymnasium/Fitness Center
Fitness Area 0.72
Gymnasium Audience Seating 0.43
Playing Area 1.20
Hospital
Corridor/Transition Width < 8 ft 0.89
Emergency 2.26
Exam/Treatment 1.66
Laundry/Washing 0.60
Lounge/Recreation 1.07
Medical Supply 1.27
Nursery 0.88
Nurses’ Station 0.87
Operating Room 1.89
Patient Room 0.62
Pharmacy 1.14
Physical Therapy 0.91
Radiology/Imaging 1.32
Recovery 1.15
Hotel/Highway Lodging
Hotel Dining 0.82
Hotel Guest Rooms 1.11
Hotel Lobby 1.06
Highway Lodging Dining 0.88
Highway Lodging Guest Rooms 0.75
Library
Card File and Cataloging 0.72
Reading Area 0.93
Stacks 1.71
Manufacturing
Corridor/Transition Width < 8 ft 0.41
Detailed Manufacturing 1.29
Equipment Room 0.95
Extra High Bay (>50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.05
High Bay (25–50 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.23
Low Bay (<25 ft Floor to Ceiling Height) 1.19
Museum
General Exhibition 1.05
Restoration 1.02
Parking Garage
Garage Area 0.19
Post Office
Sorting Area 0.94
Religious Buildings
Audience Seating 1.53
Fellowship Hall 0.64
Worship Pulpit, Choir 1.53
Retail
Dressing/Fitting Room 0.87
Mall Concourse 1.10
Sales Area (for accent lighting) 1.68
Sports Arena
Audience Seating 0.43
Court Sports Arena—Class 4 0.72
Court Sports Arena—Class 3 1.20
Court Sports Arena—Class 2 1.92
Court Sports Arena—Class 1 3.01
Ring Sports Arena 2.68
Transportation
Air/Train/Bus—Baggage Area 0.76
Airport—Concourse 0.36
Audience Seating 0.54
Terminal—Ticket Counter 1.08
Warehouse
Fine Material Storage 0.95
Medium/Bulky Material Storage 0.58

 

 

 

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