Quick Reference-Fire Fighting (Part-2)

Size of the Mains for Fire Fighting as per Type of Building ( IS 3844 )

Mains of Fire Fighting Type of Building Building Height
100 mm single outlet landing valves I) Residential buildings (A)
a) Lodging housing 15 Meter to 45 Meter
b) Dormitory 15 Meter to 45 Meter
c) Family private dwellings 15 Meter to 45 Meter
d) Apartment houses 15 Meter to 45 Meter
e) With shopping area not exceeding 250 m2 15 Meter to 45 Meter
f) Hotel buildings up to 3 star grade 15 Meter to 24 Meter and area not exceeding 600 m2 per floor
100 mm single outlet landing valves II) Educational buildings (B)  Above 15 m but not exceeding 35 m
101 mm single outlet landing valves III) Institutional buildings (C)  Above 15 m but not exceeding 35 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves a) For hospitals and sanatorium with beds not exceeding 100no’s Above 15 m but not exceeding 25 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves b) For custodial places and mental institutions  Above 15 m but not exceeding 35 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves  IV) Assembly buildings (D) Above 15 m but not exceeding 24 m and total floor area not exceeding 500 m2/floor
100 mm single outlet landing valves V) Business buildings (E) Above I5 m but not exceeding 24m
100 mm single outlet landing valves VI) Mercantile buildings (F)  Above 15m but not exceeding 24 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves VII) Industrial buildings (G) Above 15 m but not exceeding 24 m
150mm with twin outlet landing VIII) All buildings classified  under(I) To (IV)  Above 45 m
150mm with twin outlet landing  IX) All buildings classified  under( v) above with shopping area not exceeding 250 m2  Above 24 m
150mm with twin outlet landing X) All buildings classified under (vi) above Above 24 m and area exceeding 600 m2
150mm with twin outlet landing XI) Hotel buildings of  4 star and 5 star grade Above 15 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XII) All buildings classified under II and III above Above 25 m/35 m as applicable
150mm with twin outlet landing XIII) All buildings classified under IV above Above 25 m and area exceeding 500m2/floor
150mm with twin outlet landing XIV) All buildings classified under V above Above 24 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XV) All buildings classified under VI above Above 24 m but not exceeding 35 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XVI) All buildings classified under VII above Above 24 m but not exceeding 35 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XVII) All storage buildings (H) Above 10 m but not exceeding 24 m

 

As per (IS 3844)

Type of Riser Internal hydrants form part of any of the following systems
a) Dry-riser system,
b) Wet-riser system,
c) Wet-riser-cum-down-comer system
d) Down-comer system.
Dry-Riser System ( for Cold Region ) Dry-riser main system can be installed in buildings under Group A (iI, ii, ii, iv ), where the height of building is above 15 m but not exceeding 24 m up to terrace level and where the water supply for firefighting is immediately available either through the underground water storage tank/tanks or through water mains/town’s main
Dry-riser system does not include hose reel, hose cabinets, fire hose and branch pipes.
Wet-Riser System Wet-riser system should be provided in the types of buildings according to the provision mentioned. The system should consist of a pipe or  number of pipes depending on the area and height of the buildings permanently charged with water under pressure with landing valves, hose reel, hose, branch pipe, etc, at every floor level
A provision of pressure differential switch to start the pump automatically, so that water under pressure is advisable for operational hydrant, hose reels, etc, as soon as the water is drawn from hydrant landing valves causing drop in pressure. The system also incorporates a stand-by pump to come into operation automatically when the normal power supply source fails.
The distribution of wet-riser installation in the building should be so situated as not to be farther than 30 m from any point in the area covered by the hydrant and at a height of 0.75 m to 1 m from the floor. The rising mains should not be more than 50 m apart in horizontal.
Fire service inlet with gate and non-return valve to charge the riser in the event of failure of the static pump directly from the mobile pump of the tie services should: be provided on the wet-riser system. The, fire service inlet for 100 mm internal diameter rising main should have collecting head with 2 numbers of 63 mm inlets and for 150 mm rising main, collecting head with 4 numbers of 63 mm inlets should be provided.
For wet-risers down-comer system, two pumps of different capacities one for the wet-riser and the other for down-comer system should be installed. The pumps should be fed from normal source of power supply and also by an alternative source in case of failure of normal source.
For a wet-riser system, two automatic pumps should be installed to independently feed the wet riser main, one of which should act as stand-by, each pump being supplied by a different source of power. The pump shall be arranged so that when acting as duty-pump, operate automatically when one or more hydrant is opened thus causing a drop in pressure. The stand-by pump should be arranged to operate automatically in case of failure of the duty pump. The system should have an interlocking arrangement so that only one of the pumps operate at a time.
Wet-Riser-cum-Down-Comer A wet-riser-cum-down-comer system should be provided in the type of buildings indicated in Table 1 of IS 3844 according to the provision mentioned.
Priming of the main pump and terrace pump in case of wet-riser-cum-down, or both the pumps in case of wet-riser installation, should be automatic. This can be achieved either by having flooded suction, or by a priming tank with foot valve arrangement. However, a flooded suction is preferable.
Down-Comer System Single headed landing valve, connected to a 100 mm diameter pipe taken from the terrace pump delivery should be provided at each floor/landing, A hose reel conforming to IS 884 : 1985 and directly tapped from the down-comer pipe should also be provided on each floor/landing.

 

As per ( IS 3844 )

Riser The position of risers should be located within lobby approach staircase or within, the staircase enclosure when there is no lobby. However, the risers or the landing valves connected
Landing Valve Landing valves should be installed on each floor level and on the roof, if accessible, in such
a way that control line of landing valve is 1 to 1.2 m above the floor level.
Fire Hoses In buildings with basements, the internal hydrants as well as the hose reel installations should be extended to cover the basement area also, over and above sprinkler system, as necessary. .
Fire hoses should be of sufficient length to, carry water from the nearest source of water supply to the most distant point in the area covered by a hydrant, by the normal route of travel. For each internal hydrant ( single headed ), there should be a total length of not less than.30 m of 63 mm conforming to Type A of IS 636 : 1988 or provided in two lengths of not more than 15 m each wire wound with coupling together with branch pipe conforming to IS 2871 : 1983
Such spare hoses also should be in length of not more than 15 m complete with coupling. Hoses and accessories should be kept in hose cabinet painted fire red and constructed preferably of wood with glass front
Hose Box Unless impracticable by structural considerations, the landing valves should always be housed in hose boxes. Such hose boxes should be made of MS plates of 2 mm minimum thickness with glass front. The size of the box should be adequate to accommodate single/double headed landing valves with 2 or 4 lengths of fire hose each of 15 m length, and one or two branch pipes. The hose reel may or may not be accommodated inside the hose box.
Building fitted with wet-riser/wet-riser-down-comer mains should, have access roads to within 6 m from the boundary line of the building and the nearest wet-riser stack should not be more than 15 m from the boundary line of the building.
Hose Reels In addition to wet-riser systems, first aid hose reels should be installed on all floors of buildings above 15 m in height. The hose reel should be directly taken from the wet-riser pipe by means of a 37 mm socket and pipe to which the hose reel is to be attached.
The hose reel should be sited at each floor level, staircase, lobby or mid-landing adjacent to, exits in corridors in such a way that the nozzle of the hose can be taken into every room and within 6 m of any part of a room keeping in view the layout and obstructions. Tbe doors provided for the hose reel recesses should he capable of opening to approximately 180”. when installation is in open areas, the position should be above head height and the nozzle retainer and tbe inlet valve should be at about 900 mm above floor level.
Air Valve To allow any trapped air in the rising main to escape when water is pressurized into system,air release valve should be incorporated above the highest outlet of each main.
External Hydrant For external hydrants, piping (water main ) should be laid preferably underground, to avoid it getting damaged by moving vehicles, etc. To avoid rusting, underground pipes should be either of cast iron conforming to IS 1536 in which case it should be properly treated with a coat of primary paint with two coats of bitumen paint. The pipes should be properly supported of pedestals – not more than 3 m apart. Underground pipes should be laid 1 m below to avoid damage during road repair, etc, and at road crossings where heavy vehicles are expected to pass, it should pass
Jockey Pump For bigger buildings or major installations, where chance of such leakage is very considerable, it is desirable to install a small pump ( using a small motor and 200/300 liter/min pump ) with pressure switches for automatic start and stop.
Using Wet-Riser System Pump for Partial Sprinkler System In main high rise buildings, the basement is used for car parking/housing transformers/or storages and other floors may be used as shopping areas departmental stores, etc, the total area used for such purpose being small, in such cases, the same wet-riser pump may be used for feeding the sprinkler system provided that:
a)the total area of the basement to be protected is less than 500 m2.
b) the total area utilized as shops departmental stores is less than 1000 m2.
c)the pump has a capacity of at least 2850 l/min with suitable motor.

 

AS per IS 15301

Foundation of Pump Pumps are to be mounted on a concrete foundation having minimum M grade of reinforced concrete as M15..
The thickness of the foundation shall be 50 mm minimum for small pumps up to 900 Liter/min capacity, 75 mm for pumps up to 2280 liter/min capacity and 100 liter/min for bigger pumps up to 4 500 liter/min. For extra ordinary big pumps, the thickness may go up to 150 mm. The size of the foundation shall cover the full length and width of the pump and at least 150 mm on the front and back of the pump and 75 mm on the sides as clearance.
Pump Room Location Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings and overhead structures
 Where this is not feasible, they may be attached to a building provided a perfect separation wall having 4 hour fire rating is constructed between the pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room is of RCC construction atleast 100 mm thick and access to the pump room is from the outside. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls and noncombustible roof with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements.
Transformer cubicles inside the sub-stations shall be separated from H.T. and L.T. cubicles and from each other by walls of brick/stone/concrete blocks or 355 mm thickness or of RCC of 200 mm thickness with door openings, if any, therein being protected by single fireproof doors having 2-hour fire resistance
Transformers installed outdoors, which are supplying power to fire pump shall also be located at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings including sub-station or D.G. House, Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the building within 6 m of the transformers] shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm thick wired glasses in steel
framework respectively.

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group A – Residential Buildings – Above 15 m in height  (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required A3- Dormitories, A4- Apartments Houses A5- Hotels
Fire Safety 15 Mts To 35 Mts 35 Mts To  45 Mts 45 Mts To 60 Mts Above 60 Mts 15 Mts To  30 Mts Above 30 Mts and A6 Hotels (Starred)
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 25,000 liters capacity 5,000 liters (5,000 liters if basement) 10,000 liters capacity 25,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank Not Required 75,000 liters capacity 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity 2,00,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump 900 LPM at Terrace level Tank Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank Not Required 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 1620 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required Required Required Required Required
Down Comer System Required Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Not Required Required Required Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Not Required Not Required Required Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Not Required Not Required Not Required Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required if area of basement exceeds 200 Sq.mts Required if area of basement exceeds 200 Sq.mts Required Required Required Required

 

Requirements of Fire Safety for Group B – Educational Buildings of above 15 mts in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required  B-1 Schools up to Senior Secondary Level 
B-2 All others/training Institutions  (Ground + One Storey)
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor. Depending up on the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 25000 Liters Capacity
Under Ground Water Tank Not required
Terrace Fire Pump 900 LPM
Fire Pump near Under Ground Water Tank Not required
Hose Reel Assembly Required
Down Comes System Required
Wet Riser System Not required
Yard Hydrant Not required
Fire Service Inlet Required
Manually  Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required
Automatic Detection and Alarm System Not required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required if area of basement exceeds 200 sq.mts

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group C – Institutional Buildings – Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required C1- Hospitals,  Sanatoria and Nursing Home C2 – Custodial Institutions
C3 – Penal and Mental Institutions
Fire Safety (Active Measures) 15 Mts not exceeding 24 Mts not exceeding 15 Mts not exceeding 24 Mts not exceeding
24  Mts 30 Mts 24 Mts 30 Mts
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 10,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 1.00,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required  Required Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group D – Assembly Buildings Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required D1 – Theater over  1000 persons, D2 up to 1000 persons  D3 – Permanent Stage over 300 persons D6 – Not exceeding 30 mtrs D7 – Elevated or underground for assembly not  covered D1-D6
D4 – up to 300 persons, D5 all others
Fire Safety 15 Mts To 24 Mts 24 Mts To 30 Mts 15 Mts not exceeding 24 Mts not exceeding
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 10,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity
D1-D5, 2,00,000 liters for D6 Multiplex
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required Required Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group E – Business Buildings  Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required E1  offices, banks, professional establishments, like offices of architects, engineers, doctors, lawyers and police stations, E2 – Laboratories research establishments, libraries and test houses.  E3 – Computer installations, E4 – Telephone Exchanges,  E5
Fire Safety 15 Mts To 24 Mts 24 Mts To 30 Mts Above 30 mt
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 10,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 2,00,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required  Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group F Mercantile Building  Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required F1  – Shops, Stores up to 500 Sq.m, F3 – Underground shopping centre and  Storage
F2 – Shops, Stores more than 500 Sq. mtrs.
Fire Safety (Active Measures) 15 Mts To 24 Mts 24 Mts To 30 Mts
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 10,000 liters capacity 10,000 liters capacity 10,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required
Manually Fire Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group G Industrial Buildings  Above 15 m in height not to be permitted 18 Mts in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection G1  – Low Hazard Industries G2 – Moderate Hazard Industries
BUILT UP AREA
Fire Safety Up to 100 Sq.mt More than  100 Sq.mt. & up to 500 Sq.mt More than 500 Sq.mtrs Up to 100Sq.mtrs More than  100Sq.mtrs and up to 500 Sq.mtrs More than  500Sq.mtrs and up to 1000 Sq.mtrs Up to 1000 Sq.mt
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 5000 liters in case of basement area exceeds 200m2 5000 liters add 5000 liters if the provision of sprinkler in basement 10,000 liters capacity 10,000 Liters capacity 10,000 Liters capacity 20,000 Liters capacity 20,000 Liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank Not required Not required 1,00,000 liters Not required Not required 75,000 Liters capacity 1,00,000 Liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump 450 LPM 450 LPM 450 LPM 900 LPM 900 LPM 900 LPM 900 LPM
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank Not required Not required 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM Not required Not required 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Not required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Down Comer System Not required Required Required Not required Not required Required Required
Wet Riser System Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Not required Not required Not Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required (if there is basement) Required (if there is basement) Required Required Required Required Required

About Jignesh.Parmar
Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control), B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE) and CEng,India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 16 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in “Electrical Mirror”, “Electrical India”, “Lighting India”,”Smart Energy”, “Industrial Electrix”(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

One Response to Quick Reference-Fire Fighting (Part-2)

  1. Muhammad Mohsin Ansari says:

    Thanks………Jignesh.Parmar

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