Quick Reference-Fire Fighting (Part-1)

 

Class of Fire

CLASS Type of Fire Type of Fire Extinguisher
Class A Fires involving Paper, Wood, Textile, Packing materials and the like. Water, foam, ABC dry power and halocarbons.
Class B Fires involving Oil, Petrol, Solvent, Grease, Paints, Celluloid and the like. Foam, dry powder, clean agent and carbon dioxide extinguishers
Class C Fires involving Electrical Hazards, Motor Vehicle Gaseous substance under pressure. Dry powder, clean agent and carbon dioxide extinguishers
Class D Fires involving Chemicals, Metal and active like

Magnesium ,titanium

Extinguishers with special dry powder for metal tires

 

Area covered by Fire Extinguisher (NBC)

Type of Fire Extinguishers Coverage (Floor) Area
Water/ Sand Bucket 100 sq.mt.
Sprinklers 6 sq.mt.
Extinguishers (9 Liter) 600 sq.mt.
Heat Detectors 16 sq.mt.
Hydrant Riser (Outlet 100 mm dia with landing valve and First aid hose reel) 930 sq.mt
Smoke Detectors 50 sq.mt.

 

Water Requirement for the Fire Fighting (AS per NBC)

Q = 3000 P
Q = Fire demand in Liters/Minutes
P = Population in Thousands
Note:  The above rate must be maintained at a minimum pressure of 1 to 1.5 kg / cm2 for at least four hours.

 

Water Requirement for Wet Riser/Down Corner System (As per NBC -TABLE 4)

Residential Buildings U.G. Water Storage Tank Static Terrace Tank
15 m to 30 m 50,000 lts 10,000 lts
30 m to 45 m 1,00,000 lts 20,000 lts
Above 45 m 2,00,000 lts 40,000 lts

 

Water Requirement for Wet Riser/Down Corner System (As per NBC -TABLE 5)

Business Building U.G. Water Storage Tank Static Terrace Tank
15 m to 30 m 100000 lts (50000 lts if covered area in G.F is less than 300sq.m.) 20,000 lts
30 m to 45 m 20000 lts 20,000 lts
Above 45 m 250000 lts 50,000 lts

 

Classification of fire Pumps (As per IS 15301)

Pump Size Location of Pump Installation
450 Liter/Min Pumps to be installed on the terrace to feed the Down Comer System.
900 Liter/Min Pumps to be installed on the terrace to feed the Down Comer System.
2280 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.
2850 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.
4500 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.
For special risks 6700 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.

 

Suction and Delivery Pipe Sizes (IS 3844)

Pump Size Pump Location Suction Delivery
450 Liter/min Terrace 50 mm 50 mm
 900 Liter/min Terrace 75 mm 50 mm
1400 Liter/min Terrace 100 mm 100 mm
2280 Liter/min Fire Pump 150 mm 150 mm
2850 Liter/min Fire Pump 200 mm 150 mm
4500 Liter/min Fire Pump 250 mm 200 mm
6700 Liter/min Fire Pump 250 mm 200 mm

 

Different Types of Fire Extinguishers for Different Classes of Fires ( IS 2190 )

Type of Extinguisher IS Type of Fires
Class A Class B Class C Class D
water type (gas cartridge) IS 940 , IS 13385 S NS NS NS
water type (stored pressure) IS 6234 S NS NS NS
mechanical foam type (gas cartridge) IS 10204, IS 13386 S S NS NS
mechanical foam type (stored pressure)  IS 14951,IS 15397 S S NS NS
dry powder type (stored pressure)  IS 13849 S S S NS
dry powder type (gas cartridge)  IS 2171 , IS 10658 S S S NS
dry powder type for metal fires  IS 11833 NS NS NS S
carbon dioxide type  IS 2878, IS 8149 NS S S NS
clean agent gas type  IS 15683 S S S NS
halon 1211 type IS 4862 , IS 11108 S S S NS

 

PRESSURE TESTING OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS  ( IS 2190 )

Type of Extinguisher IS Test Interval (Year) Test Pressure (kg/cm2) Pressure Maintained for Min. (kg/cm2)
Water type (gas cartridge) IS 940 3 35 2.5
Water type (stored pressure)  IS 6234 3 35 2.5
Water type (gas cartridge) IS 13385 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (gas cartridge)  IS 10204 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (stored pressure) IS 15397 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (gas cartridge)  IS 13386 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (gas cartridge) 135 liter  IS 14951 3 35 2.5
Dry powder ( stored pressure) IS l3849 3 35 2.5
 Carbon dioxide IS 2878 5 250 2.5
 Clean agent IS 15683 3 35 2.5
Dry powder (gas cartridge) IS2171, IS10658 3 35 2.5

 

LIFE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ( IS 2190)

Type of Extinguisher Life Time, Year
Water type 10
Foam type 10
Powder type 10
Carbon dioxide 15
Clean agent 10

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INSTALLATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS  ( IS 2190 )

Occupancy Type of Occupancy Nature of Occupancy Class of
Fire
Typical Examples
Group A Residential buildings Low Hazard CLASS A Lodging or rooming, one or two family houses, private dwellings, dormitories, apartment houses, flats, up to 4 star hotels, etc
  Low Hazard CLASS C Small kitchens having LPG connection, electrical heaters, etc
  Medium Hazard CLASS A Multi-storied buildings, multi-risk buildings, five star hotels, etc
Group B Educational buildings Low Hazard CLASS A Tutorials, vocational training institutes, evening colleges, commercial institutes
  Medium Hazard CLASS A Schools, colleges, etc
Group C Institutional buildings Medium Hazard CLASS A Hospitals, sanatoria, homes for aged, orphanage jails, etc
Group D Assembly buildings-D-1 High Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, having seating capacity of over 1 00 persons
Assembly buildings-D-2 High Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibitions halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, having seating capacity less than 1 000 persons
Assembly buildings-D-3 High Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, but having accommodation for more than 300 persons, but less than 1 000 persons, with no permanent seating arrangement
Assembly buildings-D-4 / D5 Low Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, but having accommodation less than 300 and those not covered under D-l to D-3
Group E Business buildings-E-1 Special Hazard CLASS A Offices, banks, record rooms, archives, libraries, data processing centers, etc
Business buildings-E-2 Medium Hazard CLASS B Laboratories, research establishment, test houses, etc
Business buildings-E-3 Special Hazard CLASS A Computer installations
Group F Mercantile buildings Medium Hazard CLASS A Shops, stores, markets, departmental stores,
underground shopping centers, etc
Group G Industrial buildings Low Hazard CLASS A Small industrial units
Medium Hazard CLASS A Corrugated carton manufacturing units, paper cane units, packing case manufacturing units, cotton waste manufacturing units
HH CLASS A Large number yards, saw mills, godowns and warehouses storing combustible materials, cold storages, freight depots, etc
Low Hazard CLASS B Demonstration chemical plants, small chemical processing plants, pilot plants, etc
Medium Hazard CLASS B Workshops, painting shops, large kitchens, industrial canteens, generator rooms, heat treatment shops, tread rubber manufacturing units, petrol bunks, tubes and Haps units, etc
High Hazard CLASS B Petroleum processing units, chemical plants, industrial alcohol plants, effluent treatment plants, etc
High Hazard CLASS C Fertilizer plants, petrochemical plants, LPG bottling plants, etc
High Hazard CLASS D All processes involving use of combustible highly flammable materials, reactive metals and alloys, including their storage
Group H Storage buildings Medium Hazard CLASS B Flammable liquid stores, storage in drums and cans in open, paints and varnishes go down
High Hazard CLASS B Tank farms, chemical and petroleum bulk storage depots, large service stations, truck and marine terminals, underground LDO/furnace oil storage yards, etc
Medium Hazard CLASS C LPG distribution godown/office, distribution storage godowns/offices of D, N, H, Argon and other industrial gases
High Hazard CLASS C Storage and handling of gas cylinders in bulk, gas plant, gas holders ( Horton), spheres, etc
Group J Hazardous Buildings used for storage, handling, manufacture and processing of highly combustible explosive materials. (Risks involved in terms of class of fire and intensity of fire has to be assessed on case to case basis and statutory authorities to be consulted, environmental factors and mutual aid facilities to be taken into account before deciding on the fire extinguisher requirements.)

 

RECOMMENDED  EQUIPMENT TO BE INSTALLED ( IS 2190 )

Class of Fire  Occupancy No of Fire Systems
CLASS A Low Hazard One 9 liter water expelling extinguisher or ABC 5 kg/6 kg fire extinguisher, for every 200 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment or floor of the building.
Medium Hazard Two 9 liter water expelling extinguishers or ABC 5 kg / 6 kg fire extinguisher, for every 200 m2 with minimum of 4 extinguishers per compartment floor.
Medium Hazard Provision as per MH occupancy; in addition to one 50 liter water CO2/25 kg ABC fire extinguisher for every 100 m2 of floor area
Special Hazard One 4.5 kg capacity carbon dioxide or one 2/3 kg capacity clean agent extinguisher for every 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers
CLASS B Low Hazard One 9 liter foam extinguisher, mechanical or BC or ABC, 5 kg/6 kg fire extinguisher, for every 200 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment or floor.
Medium Hazard Two 9 liter foam extinguisher, mechanical type, or 5/6 kg dry powder extinguisher ( or one of each type) for every 200 m2 area with minimum of four extinguisher per compartment
Medium Hazard Provision as per MH, and in addition to one 50 liter mechanical foam type extinguisher or 25 kg BC fire extinguisher for every 100 m2 or part thereof one l35 liter foam mechanical extinguisher for every 300 m2 of floor area
CLASS C Low Hazard One 2/3 kg dry powder of clean agent extinguisher for every 20 m2 of floor area
Medium Hazard One 10 kg dry powder extinguisher (stored pressure) or 6.5 kg  carbon dioxide extinguisher or 5 kg clean agent for 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof, with minimum of one extinguishers of the same type for every compartment;
High Hazard Dry powder extinguisher (stored pressure) of 10 kg or 6.5 kg CO2 extinguisher, or 5 kg clean agent extinguisher for every 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof, subject to a minimum of two extinguishers of same type per room or compartment.
CLASS D High Hazard One 10 kg dry powder extinguisher with special dry powder for metal fires for every 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment/room

 

About Jignesh.Parmar (B.E,Mtech,MIE,FIE,CEng)
Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control), B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE) and CEng,India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 16 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in “Electrical Mirror”, “Electrical India”, “Lighting India”,”Smart Energy”, “Industrial Electrix”(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

One Response to Quick Reference-Fire Fighting (Part-1)

  1. Nikhil Garde says:

    You have given each and every parameter as per NBC norms

    Thank you Jignesh bhai.

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