Selection for Street Light Luminar-(PART-2)


Classification of Street:

 

Classification Roadway Traffic
Classification Number Number of Vehicles per Hour
Maximum Night Hour Both Direction
Very light traffic Under 150
Light traffic 150 500
Medium traffic 500 1200
Heavy traffic 1200 2400
Very heavy traffic 2400 4000
Heavy traffic Over 4000

 

Classification of Pedestrian Traffic
Light or No Traffic Residential, warehouse areas on express / elevated depressed roadways
Medium Traffic Secondary business streets and some industrial roads
Heavy Traffic Business streets.

 

Mounting Height of Street Light Laminar:

  •  The distance the lamp is mounted above the roadway will affect the illumination intensity, uniformity of brightness, area covered, and relative glare of the unit.
  • Higher mounted units will provide greater coverage, more uniformity, and reduction of glare, but a lower illumination level.
  • It is necessary to weigh the effects of larger lamps against a greater number of smaller units at lower mounting heights with maximum glare potential.
  • The height of luminaries above the roadway surface varies from 5 Meter to more than 20 Meter.
  • Conventional roadway lighting utilized mounting height of 8 to 20 Meter. The lower mounting heights require the use of cutoff or semi-cutoff luminary’s distribution to minimize glare.


Height of Pole Application
6 Meter For streets ,alleys, public gardens and parking lots
8 Meter Urban traffic route, multiplicity of road junctions,
Narrow roads such as local access roads in residential areas in which a mounting height between 10 M or 12 M and 5 M or 6 M is required.
10 Meter Urban traffic route, For wide heavily used routes where a large number of intersection, bends can lead to a short spacing making the use of 12 M mounting height uneconomical.
12 Meter Wide or heavily used routes where advantage can be taken of a longer spacing of luminaries.
18 Meter and above High mast lighting poles shall be installed at large-scale area such as airports, dockyards, large industrial areas, sports areas and road intersections


Type of Road Pole Pole Height Laminar Watt Type of Laminar
Rural Aluminum or Steel Pole 10 to 16 Meter 250W to 400W HPS
Urban Aluminum 10 to 13 Meter 250W to 400W HPS (Cut off or Semi Cut off)

 High Mast Lighting Systems:

  • High mast lighting has 3 or 4 no’s of 1000 watt HPS luminaries mounted on poles /towers, at mounting heights (30 Meter). It develops a highly uniform light distribution.
  • Advantage:
  • Excellent uniformity of illumination, reduce glare with a substantially smaller number of pole locations.
  • Application:
  • Where continuous lighting is desirable such as lighting of toll plazas, rest areas ,parking areas, general area lighting, highways , traffic lanes.
  • High mast lighting is also desirable where there is minimal residential area.
  • High Mast used at remote location to eliminates the need for maintenance, vehicles obstructing traffic on the roadway.
  • High Mast having symmetric or asymmetric distribution
  • The design and installation of high mast lighting equipment is more complex than conventional lighting.

 

Correction Lamp Comparison Chart (Bureau of Energy Efficiency, Delhi)

Lamp Type Lamp ( Watts) Efficacy (Lumens /Watt) ColorRender

 

LampLife (Hr) Remarks
Incandescent (GLF) Lamps:
(Incandescent bulbs) 15,25,40,60,75,100,150,200, 300,500               (no ballast) 8 to 17 100 1000  
Tungsten Halogen  75,100,150,500,1000,2000 (no ballast) 13 to 25 100 2000  
Fluorescent Tube lights(Argon filled) 20,40,65, (32,51,79) 31 to 58 67 to 77 5000  
Fluorescent Tubular Lamp (T5) 18,20,36,40,58,65 100 to 120 Very Good 15,000 to 20,000  Energy-efficient,long lamp life,

only available in low wattages

Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) 5,7,9,11,18,24,36 26 to 64 85 8000  
HID Lamps:
High Pressure MercuryVapor (HPMV) 80,125,250,400,1000,2000 25 to 60 45 (Fair) 16,000 to 24,000 High energy use,Poor lamp life
High Pressure   Metal Halide Lamps (HPMH) 70,150,250, 400,1000,2000 62 to 72 70 (Excellent) 8000 to 12000 High luminous efficacy, Poor lamp life
High Pressure SodiumVapor Lamps (HPSV) 70,150,250,400,1000 69 to 108 25 to 60 (Fair) 15000 to 24000 Energy-efficient, poor color rendering
Low Pressure Sodium Vapor Lamps (LPSV) 35,55,135 90 to 133 Very Poor 18000 to 24000 Energy-efficient, very poor color rendering
Low Pressure Mercury   Fluorescent TubularLamps (T8 & T12) 35,55,135 30 to 90 Good 5000 to 10000 Poor lamp life, medium energy use, only available in low wattages
LED Lamps
Light Emitting Diode (LED)   70 to 160 Good 40,000 to   90,000 High energy savings, low maintenance, long life, no mercury. High investment cost, nascent technology
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Selection for Street Light Luminar-(PART-1)


Terminology for Road Light Illumination:

 (1) Luminance (E):

  • Luminance is the amount of light falling on a surface.
  • The luminance refers to the incidence of the light flux on a surface, per unit of surface.
  • E = Phi / A (lx)
  • The luminance is expressed in lux (lx).
  • Full moon has 0.1 Lux ,Emergency lighting has 1 Lux ,Street lighting has 10 Lux ,Winter day has 10 000 Lux , Summer day has 100 000 Lux

 (2) Lumen (lm):

  • Lumen is a unit of measure of the quantity of light.
  • One lumen is the amount of light which falls on an area of one square foot every point of which is one foot from the source of one candela.
  • A light source of one candela emits a total of 12.57 lumens.

 (3) Lux:

  • Lux is a metric measurement of light on a surface.
  • The illumination of light flux is expressed in Lux hence unit of luminance is Lux.
  • The luminous flux per unit area of 1 square meter on a sphere of radius 1 meter is called 1 Lux.
  • 1 Lux= 1 Lumen per square Meter.
  • Lux = Lumens / Area (sq meter).
  • 1 Lux equals 0.0929 foot candle
  • Difference between Lumens and Lux
  • One Lux is defined as being equivalent to one lumen spread over an area of one square meter.
  • Measurement of lux (light intensity) tells us how many lumens (total light output) we need in the given area of illumination.
  • Lighting a larger area to the same measurement of lux requires a larger number of lumens which is usually achieved by increasing the number of light fixtures.

(4) Foot candle (fc):

  • It is the English unit of Illuminance.
  • It is the amount of light flux density. It is the unit of measure used when describing the amount of light in a room and expressed in lumens per square foot.
  • It is the amount of light that falls on the area we want to illuminate. We also want to know the lumens per square foot or square meter in a space.
  • This quantity called Light Flux Density is the common term Foot-candle (fc).
  • Foot candle = Lumens / Area
  • Example: A 40-watt fluorescent lamp 120 centimeters long produces 3,200 lumens of light in a room having a general dimensions of 10 x 20 ft. Find the illumination on the floor.
  • Foot candle (fc) = Lumens / Area
  • Foot candle (fc) = 3,200 lm / 10×20 ft = 16 foot candle
  • The foot candle is an important unit of measure in calculating the desired illumination and layout of fixtures.

 (5) Foot candle (fc):

  • The unit of luminance = the luminous fl ux per square foot on a sphere of radius 1 foot.
  • One foot-candle is approximately 10 lux.

 (6) Luminance:

  • Luminance indicates the degree of brightness with which the human eye perceives a light source or an illuminated surface.
  • L = E/A (cd/m2)
  • The luminance is expressed in candela per square meter (cd/m2).
  • The amount of light reflected from a surface. It is sort of the “brightness” we see, i.e. the visual effect of the luminance.
  • It depends on the amount of luminance and on the reflective properties of the surface as well as on the projected area on the plane perpendicular to the direction of view.
  • The unit is candela per square meter (cd/m2), or candela per square foot

(7) Lamp Circuit Efficacy:

  • Amount of light (lumens) emitted by a lamp for each watt of power consumed by the lamp circuit, i.e. including control gear losses. This is a more meaningful measure for those lamps that require control gear. It’s Unit is lumens per circuit watt (lm/W)

 (8) Uniformity ratio:

  • G = Emin/Egem (%) The uniformity ratio is the ratio between the minimum luminance and the average luminance on a surface. This figure indicates the degree of “evenness”. E = 1 indicates complete uniformity.

 (9) Utilization Factor (UF):

  • UF (%) The utilization factor indicates how well a lighting installation uses the luminous flux of the lamps. This is indicated as the ratio between the luminous flux that reaches the working plane and the light source of the „bare‟ lamps, expressed as a percentage.
  • The utilization factor of lamps is the ratio of luminous flux which is arrived to the road from the full luminous flux of lamp. It is calculated by using the curse sign of utilization factor which is different from each lamp.

 (10) Coefficient of Utilization (CU):

  • A design factor that represents the percentage of bare lamp lumens that are utilized to light the pavement surface. This factor is based on the luminaries position relative to the lighted area.

 

Coefficient of Utilization

Fixture Description

cu

Efficient fixture, large unit colored room

0.45

Average fixture, medium size room

0.35

Inefficient fixture, small or dark room

0.25

 (11) Lamp Lumen Depreciation Factor (LLD):

  • As the lamp service life increase, the lumen output of the lamp decreases. This is an inherent characteristic of all lamps.
  • The initial lamp lumen value is adjusted by a lumen depreciation factor to compensate for the anticipated lumen reduction. This assures that a minimum level of illumination will be available at the end of the assumed lamp life, even though lamp lumen depreciation has occurred. This information is usually provided by the manufacturer.
  • Mostly used LLD=0.80

 (12) Luminaries Dirt Depreciation Factor (LDD):

  • Dirt on the exterior and interior of the luminaire, and to some extent on the lamp itself, reduces the amount of light reaching the pavement.
  • Various degrees of dirt accumulation may occur depending upon the area in which the luminaire is located. Industrial areas, automobile exhaust, diesel trucks, dust and other environs all affect the dirt accumulation on the luminaire.
  • Higher mounting heights, however, tend to reduce the vehicle-related dirt accumulation.
  • Mostly LDD=0.9

 (13) Maintenance Factor (MF):

  • The maintenance factor is the combination of light loss factors used to denote the reduction of the illumination for a given area after a period of time compared to the initial illumination on the same area. It is the product of the lamp lumen depreciation factor and the luminaire dirt depreciation factor (i.e., MF = LLD x LDD).
  • Consult the manufacturer’s data and the Electrical and Mechanical Unit for the appropriate factors to use.

 

Maintenance Factor

Enclosed fixture, clean room

0.8

Average conditions

0.7

Open Fixture or dirty room

0.6

 (14) Color Rendering Index (CRI):

  • It is ability of a light source to render colors and make them appear “normal.”
  • The index scale runs from 0-100. A CRI of 100 means colors look “normal”, a low CRI means colors look distorted.
  • CRI of 60 means the source renders 60% of the colors well and 40% poorly.
  • Halogen and Incandescent lamps generally have a CRI of 100.

Illumination Unit Comparisons

Term

English

Metric (SI)

Length

Feet

Meter

Area

Square foot

Square meter

Luminance Flux

Lumens

Lumens

Illumination Flux Density

Foot candles

Lux

Luminance

Foot lamberts

Lambert or Milli-Lamberts

 Recommended Lux Level:

 

Illumination Level
Area Lux Level
Very Bright Summer Day (Max) Up to 100000 Lux
Very Bright Summer Day (Min) 20000 Lux
Nighttime Car Park 1 Lux
Nighttime Urban Street 10 Lux
Night Light on a Building 60 Lux
Machine shop 400 Lux
Offices 500 Lux
Kitchens (food preparation area) 400 Lux
Counters 240 Lux
Machine shop 700 Lux
Canteens 300 Lux
Waiting Rooms 80 Lux
Foyers 200 Lux
Entrance halls 160 Lux
Stairs 40 Lux
Warehouses 80 Lux
Passageways 80 Lux
Corridors 40 Lux

 

            Illuminance for Various Roadway Types (ANSI/IES RP-8)

Road Type Illuminace Lux
Urban Freeway 10
Freeway Interchange 14
Commercial Arterial 20
Residential Collector 8
Local 6

 

Light levels as per IS 1944

Classification of road Type of road Average level of illumination (lux) Min:Avg Min:Max (%)
Group A1 Important traffic routes carrying fast traffic 30 0.4 33
Group A2 Other main roads carrying mixed traffic, like main city streets, arterial roads, throughways etc 15 0.4 33
Group B1 Secondary roads with considerable traffic like principal local traffic routes, shopping streets etc 8 0.3 20
Group B2 Secondary roads with light traffic. important traffic routes carrying fast traffic 4 0.3 20

 

Minimum Level of illumination in Lux

Road Residential Industrial Commercial
Arterial Roads 10.0 13.0 17
Collector Road 6.0 10.0 13.0
Local Roads 4.0 7.0 9.0
Walkways & Pathways 4.0    
Lanes 4.0 2.0 2.0

 

Recommended Levels of Illumination (BIS, 1981)Table 6

Road Characteristics Avg Illumination (Lux) Min / Avg Illumination (Lux) Type of Luminaries Preferred
Important traffic routes carrying fast traffic 30 0.4 Cutoff
Main roads carrying mixed traffic like city main roads/streets, arterial roads, throughways 15 0.4 Cutoff
Secondary roads with considerable traffic like local traffic routes, shopping streets 8 0.3 Cutoff or semi-cutoff
Secondary roads with light traffic 4 0.3 Cutoff or semi-cutoff

 

Recommended Average Horizontal Illumination level in Lux

Pedestrian Traffic

Vehicular traffic Classification

Very light Light Medium Heavy to Heaviest
Heavy 9.68 12.91 16.14 12.52
Medium 6.46 8.61 10.26 12.91
Light 2.15 4.30 6.46 9.68

 

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