# Short Circuit Current Calculation (Base KVA Method)

## Example:

Calculate Fault current at each stage of following Electrical System SLD having details of.

• Main Incoming HT Supply Voltage is 6.6 KV.
• Fault Level at HT Incoming Power Supply is 360 MVA.
• Transformer Rating is 2.5 MVA.
• Transformer Impedance is 6%.

## Calculation:

• Let’s first consider Base KVA and KV for HT and LT Side.
• Base KVA for HT side (H.T. Breaker and Transformer Primary) is 6 MVA
• Base KV for HT side (H.T. Breaker and Transformer Primary) is 6.6 KV
• Base KVA for LT side (Transformer Secondary and down Stream) is 2.5 MVA
• Base KV for LT side (Transformer Secondary and down Stream) is 415V

## Fault Level at HT Side (Up to Sub-station):

### (1) Fault Level from HT incoming Line to HT Circuit Breaker

• HT Cable used from HT incoming to HT Circuit Breaker is 5 Runs , 50 Meter ,6.6KV 3 Core 400 sq.mm Aluminum Cable , Resistance of Cable 0.1230 Ω/Km and Reactance of Cable is0.0990 Ω/Km.
• Total Cable Resistance(R)= (Length of Cable X Resistance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Resistance=(0.05X0.1230) / 5
• Total Cable Resistance=0.001023 Ω
• Total Cable Reactance(X)= (Length of Cable X Reactance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Reactance=(0.05X0.0990) / 5
• Total Cable Reactance =0.00099 Ω
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc1)=√(RXR)+(XxX)
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc1)=0.0014235 Ω——–(1)
• U Reactance at H.T. Breaker Incoming Terminals (X Pu)= Fault Level / Base KVA
• U Reactance at H.T. Breaker Incoming Terminals (X Pu)= 360 / 6
• U. Reactance at H.T. Breaker Incoming Terminals(X Pu)= 0.01666 PU——(2)
• Total Impedance up to HT Circuit Breaker (Z Pu-a)= (Zc1)+ (X Pu) =(1)+(2)
• Total Impedance up to HT Circuit Breaker(Z Pu-a)=0.001435+0.01666
• Total Impedance up to HT Circuit Breaker (Z Pu-a)=0.0181 Ω.——(3)
• Fault MVA at HT Circuit Breaker= Base MVA / Z Pu-a.
• Fault MVA at HT Circuit Breaker= 6 / 0.0181
• Fault MVA at HT Circuit Breaker= 332 MVA
• Fault Current = Fault MVA / Base KV
• Fault Current = 332 / 6.6
• Fault Current at HT Circuit Breaker = 50 KA

### (2) Fault Level from HT Circuit Breaker to Primary Side of Transformer

• HT Cable used from HT Circuit Breaker to Transformer is 3 Runs , 400 Meter ,6.6KV 3 Core 400 sq.mm Aluminium Cable , Resistance of Cable 0.1230 Ω/Km and Reactance of Cable is0.0990 Ω/Km.
• Total Cable Resistance(R)= (Length of Cable X Resistance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Resistance=(0.4X0.1230) / 3
• Total Cable Resistance=0.01364 Ω
• Total Cable Reactance(X)= (Length of Cable X Reactance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Reactance=(0.4X0.0990) / 5
• Total Cable Reactance =0.01320 Ω
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc2)=√(RXR)+(XxX)
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc2)=0.01898 Ω——–(4)
• U Impedance at Primary side of Transformer (Z Pu)= (Zc2 X Base KVA) / (Base KV x Base KVx1000)
• U Impedance at Primary side of Transformer (Z Pu)= (0.01898X6) /(6.6×6.6×1000)
• U Impedance at Primary side of Transformer (Z Pu)= 0.0026145 PU——(5)
• Total Impedance(Z Pu)=(4) + (5)
• Total Impedance(Z Pu)=0.01898+0.0026145
• Total Impedance(Z Pu)=0.00261——(6)
• Total Impedance up to Primary side of Transformer (Z Pu-b)= (Z Pu)+(Z Pu-a) =(6)+(3)
• Total Impedance up to Primary side of Transformer (Z Pu-b)= 0.00261+0.0181
• Total Impedance up to Primary side of Transformer (Z Pu-b)=0.02070 Ω.—–(7)
• Fault MVA at Primary side of Transformer = Base MVA / Z Pu-b.
• Fault MVA at Primary side of Transformer = 6 / 0.02070
• Fault MVA at Primary side of Transformer = 290 MVA
• Fault Current = Fault MVA / Base KV
• Fault Current = 290 / 6.6
• Fault Current at Primary side of Transformer = 44 KA

### (3) Fault Level from Primary Side of Transformer to Secondary side of Transformer:

• Transformer Rating is 2.5 MVA and Transformer Impedance is 6%.
• % Reactance at Base KVA = (Base KVA x % impedance at Rated KVA) / Rated KVA
• % Reactance at Base KVA = (2.5X6)/2.5
• % Reactance at Base KVA =6%
• U. Reactance of the Transformer(Z Pu) =% Reactance /100
• U. Reactance of the Transformer(Z Pu)= 6/100=0.06 Ω—–(8)
• Total P.U. impedance up to Transformer Secondary Winding(Z Pu-c)=(Z Pu)+(Z Pu-b)=(7)+(8)
• Total P.U. impedance up to Transformer Secondary Winding(Z Pu-c)=0.06+0.02070
• Total P.U. impedance up to Transformer Secondary Winding(Z Pu-c)=0.0807 Ω—–(9)
• Fault MVA at Transformer Secondary Winding = Base MVA / Z Pu-c
• Fault MVA at Transformer Secondary Winding = 2.5/0.0807
• Fault MVA at Transformer Secondary Winding =31 MVA
• Fault Current = Fault MVA / Base KV
• Fault Current = 31 / (1.732×0.415)
• Fault Current at Transformer Secondary Winding = 43 KA

## Fault Level at LT Side (Sub-station to Down stream):

### (4) Fault Level from Transformer Secondary to Main LT Panel

• LT Cable used from Transformer Secondary to Main LT Panel is 13 Runs , 12 Meter , 1KV, 3.5C x 400 Sq.mm Aluminium Cable , Resistance of Cable 0.1230 Ω/Km and Reactance of Cable is0.0618 Ω/Km.
• Total Cable Resistance(R)= (Length of Cable X Resistance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Resistance=(0.012X0.1230) / 13
• Total Cable Resistance=0.00009 Ω
• Total Cable Reactance(X)= (Length of Cable X Reactance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Reactance=(0.012X0.0618) / 13
• Total Cable Reactance =0.00006 Ω
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc3)=√(RXR)+(XxX)
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc3)=0.00011 Ω——–(10)
• U Impedance at Main LT Panel (Z Pu)= (Zc3 X Base KVA) / (Base KV x Base KVx1000)
• U Impedance at Main LT Panel (Z Pu)= (0.00011X2.5×1000)/(0.415×0.415X1000)
• P P.U Impedance at Main LT Panel (Z Pu)= 001601 Ω ——(11)
• Total Impedance up to Main LT Panel (Z Pu-d)= (Zc3)+ (Z Pu-c) =(11)+(9)
• Total Impedance up to Main LT Panel (Z Pu-d)= 0.001601 +0.0807
• Total Impedance up to Main LT Panel (Z Pu-d)=0.082306 Ω.——(12)
• Fault MVA at Main LT Panel = Base MVA / Z Pu-a.
• Fault MVA at Main LT Panel = 2.5 / 0.082306
• Fault MVA at Main LT Panel = 30 MVA
• Fault Current = Fault MVA / Base KV
• Fault Current = 30 / (1.732X0.415)
• Fault Current at Main Lt Panel = 42 KA

### (5) Fault Level from Main LT Panel to Sub Panel:

• LT Cable used from Main LT Panel to Sub Panel is 2 Runs , 160 Meter , 1KV, 3.5C x 400 Sq.mm Aluminium Cable , Resistance of Cable 0.1230 Ω/Km and Reactance of Cable is0.0618 Ω/Km.
• Total Cable Resistance(R)= (Length of Cable X Resistance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Resistance=(0.160X0.1230) / 2
• Total Cable Resistance=0.008184 Ω
• Total Cable Reactance(X)= (Length of Cable X Reactance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Reactance=(0.160X0.0618) / 2
• Total Cable Reactance =0.004944 Ω
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc4)=√(RXR)+(XxX)
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc4)=0.0095614 Ω——–(13)
• U Impedance at Sub Panel (Z Pu)= (Zc4 X Base KVA) / (Base KV x Base KVx1000)
• U Impedance at Sub Panel (Z Pu)= (0.0095614 X2.5×1000)/(0.415×0.415X1000)
• P P.U Impedance at Sub Panel (Z Pu)= 13879 Ω ——(14)
• Total Impedance up to Sub Panel (Z Pu-e)= (Zc4)+ (Z Pu-d) =(14)+(12)
• Total Impedance up to Sub Panel (Z Pu-e)= 0.13879 +0.082306
• Total Impedance up to Sub Panel (Z Pu-e)=0.2211 Ω.——(15)
• Fault MVA at Sub Panel = Base MVA / Z Pu-a.
• Fault MVA at Sub Panel = 2.5 / 0.2211
• Fault MVA at Sub Panel = 11 MVA
• Fault Current = Fault MVA / Base KV
• Fault Current = 11 / (1.732X0.415)
• Fault Current at Sub Panel = 16 KA

### (6) Fault Level from Sub Panel to Motor Control Panel:

• LT Cable used from Sub Panel to Motor Control Panel is 6 Runs , 150 Meter , 1KV, 3.5C x 400 Sq.mm Aluminium Cable , Resistance of Cable 0.1230 Ω/Km and Reactance of Cable is0.0739 Ω/Km.
• Total Cable Resistance(R)= (Length of Cable X Resistance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Resistance=(0.150X0.1230) / 6
• Total Cable Resistance=0.003075 Ω
• Total Cable Reactance(X)= (Length of Cable X Reactance of Cable) / No of Cable.
• Total Cable Reactance=(0.150X0.0739) / 6
• Total Cable Reactance =0.0018475 Ω
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc5)=√(RXR)+(XxX)
• Total Cable Impedance (Zc4)=0.003587 Ω——–(16)
• U Impedance at Motor Control Panel (Z Pu)= (Zc5 X Base KVA) / (Base KV x Base KVx1000)
• U Impedance at Motor Control Panel (Z Pu)= (0.003587 X2.5×1000)/(0.415×0.415X1000)
• P P.U Impedance at Motor Control Panel (Z Pu)= 05207 Ω ——(17)
• Total Impedance up to Motor Control Panel (Z Pu-f)= (Zc5)+ (Z Pu-e) =(17)+(15)
• Total Impedance up to Motor Control Panel (Z Pu-e)= 0.13879 +0.2211
• Total Impedance up to Motor Control Panel (Z Pu-e)=0.27317 Ω.——(15)
• Fault MVA at Motor Control Panel = Base MVA / Z Pu-a.
• Fault MVA at Motor Control Panel = 2.5 / 0.27317
• Fault MVA at Motor Control Panel = 9 MVA
• Fault Current = Fault MVA / Base KV
• Fault Current = 9 / (1.732X0.415)
• Fault Current at Motor Control Panel = 13 KA

## Summary of Calculation:

 Sr.No Fault Location Fault MVA Fault Current (KA) 1 At HT Circuit Breaker 332 50 2 At Primary Side of Transformer 290 44 3 At Secondary Side of Transformer 31 43 4 At Main LT Panel 30 42 5 At Sub Main Panel 11 16 6 At Motor Control Panel 9 13 About Jignesh.Parmar
Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control), B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE) and CEng,India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 16 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in “Electrical Mirror”, “Electrical India”, “Lighting India”,”Smart Energy”, “Industrial Electrix”(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

### 62 Responses to Short Circuit Current Calculation (Base KVA Method)

1. d says:

really useful notes

• Patanjali says:

Thank you sir

2. BASKAR. C says:

Good Morning,

Thank you for sharing valuable information.

Your explanation and simple and easy to understand,

Keep going…

Thanks & Regards,

3. palani says:

Hello sir, Good morning. I have one doubt for fault current calculation. Please explain me what are the  methods are available for caculate the fault current? Thsnks, palani from kolhapur india.

Sent from Samsung Mobile

4. Yaqdhan Merzah says:

Dear Parmer,
Kindly i would like to inform you there is a mistake in the calculation in the first one (1) Fault Level from HT incoming Line to HT Circuit Breaker which is hapened when you calculating the Resistance ( 0.05*0.1230)/5=0.00123 and this cause change in the total impedance and so on
wish u all the best

5. vasant Joshi says:

Dear Jignesh.Parmar thank you very much for sharing Nice article on Fault level calculations. Regards V V Joshi

6. uday kuamr says:

Hello sir,

For a typical industrial power distribution system, which predominantly have induction motors, do we need to consider the motor contribution to the short circuit curents ? if yes then how do we do it ?

Regards,
Uday Kuamr

7. shantan mishra says:

Dear Jignesh.Parmar thank you very much for sharing Nice article on Fault level calculations.

Regards,

shantan Mishra Bangalore.

8. Ateeq says:

Dear Sir Could you explane me from where we get 360/6=0.01666 u reactance at HT Breaker incoming terminal ,,and also please tell how to take Fault Level at HT Incoming Power Supply is 360 MVA please

• c.sundarrajan says:

Sir,how you calculate fault level at HT incoming side ie 360MVA

• Aniket says:

Hello please tell me how to calculate Earth fault current from Transformer to panel

9. Deepak says:

Please help me that how Transformer impedance comes in picture to decide fault level on primary side of Transformer?

10. Aditya Pavan Kumar U says:

Sir, With due respect, I would like to say that In the above calculations Z(impedance of cable) having units in ohms is added to Z pu(of cable) having no units. I think that addition should be avoided in these calculations because only Zpu(upto that particular point) is the only parameter that should be used during every step of finding FAULT MVA. Also in a few areas(at HT SIDE particularly) 1.732 was missed. Thank You

11. weyfortey says:

Thank you for sharing your knowledge. Have you written books on Electrical Engineering?

12. jai says:

dear sir,

how to calculate electrical clearance in substation

any formula pls send us sir

13. james says:

A 315kva 3phase has 120A, 115A and 130A. What is the total current and power

14. Dhananjaya.H says:

Dear Sir Could you explane me from where we get 360/6=0.01666 u reactants at HT Breaker incoming terminal (X Pu).

15. M.Palanisamy says:

Dear Sir,

Could you explain that how to select base KVA for different KV levels

16. Naresh says:

Jignesh sir, I am very thankful to you for providing a great material and educating all of us.

Sir I have a small doubt in short circuit current analysis.
Sir Why do we consider the same cable size(I.e.400 sq.mm aluminium) at all the sections( both H.T,L.T.) sides.
Please let me know my doubt sir thanking you…

17. EDWIN says:

Excellent

18. PVSS SAIRAM says:

Jignesh Ji , well explained about short circuit calculations.

19. shiv kumar says:

Dear Sir ,
How you considered –
Base KVA for HT side (H.T. Breaker and Transformer Primary) is 6 MVA
Plz tell me .

Thanks & Regards
Shiv

20. Shiv Kumar says:

Dear Sir ,

If Transformer secondary to LT panel , we will use Bus bar than how to calculate Current / or as per above details consideration will be same . Plz reply my comments

Thanks

Shiv

21. Breaker says:

Hi brother

Can you please show Method for calculate electric breaker both mono,three-phase use in hours or Apartment and give example.

Thank and best regard!
Silay

22. farhad says:

fine

23. murugadoss says:

sir, could you please how you are taken 360/6?

24. indra says:

I would like to know the fault level will be given ?

25. Abhishek says:

What is U Reactance

26. Pramod.Patil says:

You are sharing excellent knowledge it will help us to build our technical skill thanku

27. Bhanu bansal says:

Thank you so much for such a wonderful explaination best i have ever seen

28. PREMJITH MP says:

Dear Sir can you kindly explain me from where we get 360/6=0.01666 u reactants at HT Breaker incoming terminal (X Pu).

29. Pongo says:

Great article. As an electrician I struggled with this for a long time. If you have an I Phone there is s great App called Transformer Pie that works out a trannies short circuit current for you. Maybe if use? Pongo

30. kbl seth says:

How MVA DIVIDED BY OHM CAN GIVE MVA again

31. Bhawana says:

Thank u a lot of for best explanation and make understand in better way. Thanks u so much again.

32. muiz says:

Hello sir, I have one doubt for cable short circuit calculation & lighting calculation. Please explain me what are the methods are available for caculate ? Thsnks,

33. Mohamed Akram Khan says:

Eng. Parmar, Sir, excellent example of fault calculation. One of the best I have come across. I have one question. How did you get the Base KVA as 6 MVA and should this not be base MVA. The transformer capacity is 2.5 MVA but the Base KVA is taken as 6 and I do not know from where this value was taken.
Kindly assist.

34. raju says:

dear jignesh
there are some of mistake are there in calculation(not in procedure). some time not convert the impedences into per units.please rectify

35. Rajvi says:

Dear Sir Could you explane me from where we get 360/6=0.01666 u reactants at HT Breaker incoming terminal (X Pu).
and how base KVA is 6 MVA for incoming

36. irfan says:

Hi sir.

Fault Level at HT Incoming Power Supply is 360 MVA. how u taken that fault MVA?

37. francis nkrumah says:

hi am francisnkrumah from ghana and i want u to help me with some problem i need to meter a 2.5mva transformer with a ct panel i want to know what ct rating can be used for the 2.5mva hope to hear from u soon

38. My TV says:

H.T, What does this mean ? can you help me ? thank so much

39. anandmc05 says:

I Just want to tell, the methods are very complicated and not understandable . How did you get this (Base KVA for HT side (H.T. Breaker and Transformer Primary) is 6 MVA) .

40. universal electric says:

thanks sir

41. Harish says:

Thank u for ur information

42. hyuga says:

Where did you get the information of reactance of the cable as well as the resistance of it?
Thanks

43. Rajendra Yadav says:

how to calculate LL, LG & LLG Fault current pls advice.

44. sharat das ( mahindra vehicle manuf... limited ) says:

Good Morning,

Thank you for sharing valuable information.

Your explanation and simple and easy to understand,

Keep going…

45. Rajesh says:

Dear Sir,
In first step for (3)=(2)+(1)
In this 1 and 2 are in different units ,one is p.u another one is ohm how do you added this 2 different units, please explain Sir

46. VETRIVEL says:

Very easy to understand thank you

47. nikhil says:

hello sir i have query how you considered base MVA for HT side .if you have any anther method for short ckt calculation .plz give me

48. Biswajeet Rout says:

I want to calculate the the GMR and GMD of under ground cable.Can you help me to find it with the help of an example.If you need I have the physical data also but i don’t know how to calculate it.

49. Naresh ram says:

Dear sir, thankyou for the example. But I have a doubt, how did you consider the base MVA as 360 (fault level HT side) another boubt is how did you get the “Base KVA for HT side (H.T. Breaker and Transformer Primary) is 6 MVA”.

Kindly clarify my doubt.

50. mathanshankar says:

how to find the fault level 360 at HT incoming power supply, pls answer

51. Prabakaran Rajendran says:

How did u assume that Base KVA is 6 MVA??

52. raj kumar singh says:

I am working in a RGGVY project. We are constructing 11kv new line using weasel conductors. While working on these lines we use discharge rods as safety measures. What current in the weasle conductors can cause the melting of the discharge rods cable which is a copper wire of 10 sq mm of length 13 mtrs.

53. Sehnaaz says:

As usual excellent explanation but what really irritates me is that calculation values are always wrong. It confuses your readers.

54. Amzad hossain says:

Dear sir
i want to know that we have use 630A VCB and Cable 30 Metter X-former Imp-5 and VCB set .8 how we will do calculate the Earthing rod /Cable please let me know

55. Shahbaz hussain says:

In the first calculation it should be baseKVA/MVA.

56. Nagaraju says:

How to Calculate Fault level without Transformer ., It means If It is Feeder Protection how can i calculate the fault level..??

57. Chetan Kumar says:

Thank
you sir

58. bhavesh mali says:

how to calculate faulat MVA for 20MVA transformer???

59. bhavesh mali says:

how to calculate Faulat MVA of 66KV/11KV ,20MVA transformer ..??

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