Total Losses in Power Distribution & Transmission Lines-Part 1


  • Power generated in power stations pass through large & complex networks like transformers, overhead lines, cables & other equipments and reaches at the end users. It is fact that the Unit of electric energy generated by Power Station does not match with the units distributed to the consumers. Some percentage of the units is lost in the Distribution network. This difference in the generated & distributed units is known as Transmission and Distribution loss.
  • Transmission and Distribution loss are the amounts that are not paid for by users.
  • T&D Losses= (Energy Input to feeder(Kwh)-Billed Energy to Consumer(Kwh)) / Energy Input kwh x100
  • Distribution Sector considered as the weakest link in the entire power sector. Transmission Losses is approximate 17% while Distribution Losses is approximate 50%.
  • There are two types of Transmission and Distribution Losses
  1. Technical Losses
  2. Non Technical Losses (Commercial Losses)

(1) Technical Losses:

  • The technical losses are due to energy dissipated in the conductors, equipment used for transmission Line, Transformer, sub- transmission Line and distribution Line and magnetic losses in transformers.
  • Technical losses are normally 22.5%, and directly depend on the network characteristics and the mode of operation.
  • The major amount of losses in a power system is in primary and secondary distribution lines. While transmission and sub-transmission lines account for only about 30% of the total losses. Therefore the primary and secondary distribution systems must be properly planned to ensure within limits.
  • The unexpected load increase was reflected in the increase of technical losses above the normal level
  • Losses are inherent to the distribution of electricity and cannot be eliminated.
  • There are two Type of Technical Losses.

 (a)   Permanent / Fixed Technical losses:

  • Fixed losses do not vary according to current. These losses take the form of heat and noise and occur as long as a transformer is energized.
  • Between 1/4 and 1/3 of technical losses on distribution networks are fixed losses. Fixed losses on a network can be influenced in the ways set out below.
  • Corona Losses.
  • Leakage Current Losses.
  • Dielectric Losses.
  • Open-circuit Losses.
  • Losses caused by continuous load of measuring elements
  • Losses caused by continuous load of control elements.

(b) Variable Technical losses

  • Variable losses vary with the amount of electricity distributed and are, more precisely, proportional to the square of the current. Consequently, a 1% increase in current leads to an increase in losses of more than 1%.
  • Between 2/3 and 3/4 of technical (or physical) losses on distribution networks are variable Losses.
  • By increasing the cross sectional area of lines and cables for a given load, losses will fall. This leads to a direct trade-off between cost of losses and cost of capital expenditure. It has been suggested that optimal average utilization rate on a distribution network that considers the cost of losses in its design could be as low as 30 per cent.
  • joule losses in lines in each voltage level
  • impedance losses
  • Losses caused by contact resistance.

 Main Reasons for Technical Losses:

(1) Lengthy Distribution lines:

  • In practically 11 KV and 415 volts lines, in rural areas are extended over long distances to feed loads scattered over large areas. Thus the primary and secondary distributions lines in rural areas are largely radial laid usually extend over long distances. This results in high line resistance and therefore high I2R losses in the line.
  • Haphazard growths of sub-transmission and distribution system in to new areas.
  • Large scale rural electrification through long 11kV and LT lines.

(2) Inadequate Size of Conductors of Distribution lines:

  • The size of the conductors should be selected on the basis of KVA x KM capacity of standard conductor for a required voltage regulation but rural loads are usually scattered and generally fed by radial feeders. The conductor size of these feeders should be adequate.

(3) Installation of Distribution transformers away from load centers:

  • Distribution Transformers are not located at Load center on the Secondary Distribution System.
  • In most of case Distribution Transformers are not located centrally with respect to consumers. Consequently, the farthest consumers obtain an extremity low voltage even though a good voltage levels maintained at the transformers secondary. This again leads to higher line losses. (The reason for the line losses increasing as a result of decreased voltage at the consumers end Therefore in order to reduce the voltage drop in the line to the farthest consumers, the distribution transformer should be located at the load center to keep voltage drop within permissible limits.

(4) Low Power Factor of Primary and secondary distribution system:

  • In most LT distribution circuits normally the Power Factor ranges from 0.65 to 0.75. A low Power Factor contributes towards high distribution losses.
  • For a given load, if the Power Factor is low, the current drawn in high  And  the losses proportional to square of the current will be more. Thus, line losses owing to the poor PF can be reduced by improving the Power Factor. This can be done by application of shunt capacitors.
  • Shunt capacitors can be connected either in secondary side (11 KV side) of the 33/11 KV power transformers or at various point of Distribution Line.
  • The optimum rating of capacitor banks for a distribution system is 2/3rd of the average KVAR requirement of that distribution system.
  • The vantage point is at 2/3rd the length of the main distributor from the transformer.
  • A more appropriate manner of improving this PF of the distribution system and thereby reduce the line losses is to connect capacitors across the terminals of the consumers having inductive loads.
  • By connecting the capacitors across individual loads, the line loss is reduced from 4 to 9% depending upon the extent of PF improvement.

(5) Bad Workmanship:

  • Bad Workmanship contributes significantly role towards increasing distribution losses.
  •  Joints are a source of power loss. Therefore the number of joints should be kept to a minimum. Proper jointing techniques should be used to ensure firm connections.
  • Connections to the transformer bushing-stem, drop out fuse, isolator, and LT switch etc. should be periodically inspected and proper pressure maintained to avoid sparking and heating of contacts.
  •  Replacement of deteriorated wires and services should also be made timely to avoid any cause of leaking and loss of power.

(6) Feeder Phase Current and Load Balancing:

  • One of the easiest loss savings of the distribution system is balancing current along three-phase circuits.
  • Feeder phase balancing also tends to balance voltage drop among phases giving three-phase customers less voltage unbalance. Amperage magnitude at the substation doesn’t guarantee load is balanced throughout the feeder length. Feeder phase unbalance may vary during the day and with different seasons. Feeders are usually considered “balanced” when phase current magnitudes are within 10.Similarly, balancing load among distribution feeders will also lower losses assuming similar conductor resistance. This may require installing additional switches between feeders to allow for appropriate load transfer.
  • Bifurcation of feeders according to Voltage regulation and Load.

(7)  Load Factor Effect on Losses:

  • Power consumption of Customer varies throughout the day and over seasons. Residential customers generally draw their highest power demand in the evening hours. Same commercial customer load generally peak in the early afternoon. Because current level (hence, load) is the primary driver in distribution power losses, keeping power consumption more level throughout the day will lower peak power loss and overall energy losses. Load variation is Called load factor and It varies from 0 to 1.
  • Load Factor=Average load in a specified time period / peak load during that time period.
  • For example, for 30 days month (720 hours) peak Load of the feeder is 10 MW. If the feeder supplied a total energy of 5,000 MWH, the load factor for that month is (5,000 MWh)/ (10MW x 720) =0.69.
  • Lower power and energy losses are reduced by raising the load factor, which, evens out feeder demand variation throughout the feeder.
  • The load factor has been increase by offering customers “time-of-use” rates. Companies use pricing power to influence consumers to shift electric-intensive activities during off-peak times (such as, electric water and space heating, air conditioning, irrigating, and pool filter pumping).
  • With financial incentives, some electric customers are also allowing utilities to interrupt large electric loads remotely through radio frequency or power line carrier during periods of peak use. Utilities can try to design in higher load factors by running the same feeders through residential and commercial areas

(8)  Transformer Sizing and Selection:

  • Distribution transformers use copper conductor windings to induce a magnetic field into a grain-oriented silicon steel core. Therefore, transformers have both load losses and no-load core losses.
  • Transformer copper losses vary with load based on the resistive power loss equation (P loss = I2R).
  • For some utilities, economic transformer loading means loading distribution transformers to capacity-or slightly above capacity for a short time-in an effort to minimize capital costs and still maintain long transformer life.
  • However, since peak generation is usually the most expensive, total cost of ownership (TCO) studies should take into account the cost of peak transformer losses. Increasing distribution transformer capacity during peak by one size will often result in lower total peak power dissipation-more so if it is over Loaded.
  • Transformer no-load excitation loss(iron loss) occurs from a changing magnetic field in the transformer core whenever it is energized. Core loss varies slightly with voltage but is essentially considered constant. Fixed iron loss depends on transformer core design and steel lamination molecular structure. Improved manufacturing of steel cores and introducing amorphous metals (such as metallic glass) have reduced core losses.

(9)  Balancing 3 phase loads

  • Balancing 3-phase loads periodically throughout a network can reduce losses significantly. It can be done relatively easily on overhead networks and consequently offers considerable scope for Cost effective loss reduction, given suitable incentives.

(10)   Switching off transformers

  • One method of reducing fixed losses is to switch off transformers in periods of low demand. If two transformers of a certain size are required at a substation during peak periods, only one might be required during times of low demand so that the other transformer might be switched off in order to reduce fixed losses.
  • This will produce some offsetting increase in variable losses and might affect security and quality of supply as well as the operational condition of the transformer itself. However, these trade-offs will not be explored and optimized unless the cost of losses are taken into account.

(11)    Other Reasons for Technical Losses:

  • Unequal load distribution among three phases in L.T system causing high neutral currents.
  • leaking and loss of power
  • Over loading of lines.
  • Abnormal operating conditions at which  power and distribution transformers are operated
  • Low voltages at consumer terminals causing higher drawl of currents by inductive loads.
  • Poor quality of equipment used in agricultural pumping in rural areas, cooler air-conditioners and industrial loads in urban areas.

About Jignesh.Parmar
Jignesh Parmar has completed M.Tech (Power System Control), B.E(Electrical). He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE) and CEng,India. Membership No:M-1473586.He has more than 16 years experience in Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Deputy Manager at Ahmedabad,India. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in “Electrical Mirror”, “Electrical India”, “Lighting India”,”Smart Energy”, “Industrial Electrix”(Australian Power Publications) Magazines. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS, NEC, IEC,IEEE codes. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English, Hindi, Gujarati, French languages. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics.

33 Responses to Total Losses in Power Distribution & Transmission Lines-Part 1

  1. asimali856 says:

    thanks sir

      Thanks & regards  

    Asam Ali


  2. sharma gaurang says:

    Re: Dear Sir can you focus on Smart Grid Issues ? what about Smart grid Issues and Total Losses in Power Distribution & Transmission Lines

  3. Akhilesh says:

    Very knowledgeable…Please throw some light about commercial losses and how to reduce it… Thanx a lot.

  4. Rahul Dable says:


  5. niranjan says:

    Dear sir will u please xplain about the positive , negative & zero sequence components . we have REF-615 relay for transformer incomer for a application in that it showing negative sequence but in other transformer there is no neg seq components.
    i have a doubt that neg seq componts presents means relay should act becuse of unbalance .

  6. ITI says:

    Ok, Thank you very much

  7. shaishav bhatiya says:

    can give how to calculated technical loss in power distribution system.

    i m working in distribution power system in gujarat.

  8. Deepak Jha says:

    Thanks Jignesh sir

  9. yaw says:

    Best tutorial and thanks

  10. liton says:

    sir,i am working in assam power distribution energy injected for a feeder of about 180 radial km is .5MU and ebergy billed is very less.can you explain how to show that if injection is more tha technical losses will be more.

  11. gaurav says:

    Hello sir,

    First of all I want to thank you a lot for posting electrical notes. I am working in solar power plant designing, and I have a query regarding the transmission line losses for solar plants. In typical transmission lines the current is nearly constant, but in solar power plants the current varies throughout the day with solar radiations. I want to calculate the losses in transmission line for solar power transmission, so please advise me how to go for it.

    Thank you

  12. How many phase can the transmission fluid line contact

  13. sir can i get with touch with you i got a brillant idea . for which i want a help of yours try to contact
    me if u liked it give me further help if u dont like the idea is ur wish.

  14. Siddarameshwara says:

    Sir, for distribution system energy audit any standards are there?

  15. naresh says:

    how to reduce 33kv transimission line

  16. chetan says:

    sir i m working in discom , pl provide notes on new approaches to increase distribution efficiency of electricity in discoms or new innovation or new idea related to discom in Gujarat

    Thanks for notes

  17. chandan kumar says:

    thak you sir

  18. Kannan says:

    Thank you sir

  19. Haq says:

    could you please publish excel tools or detail calculation to calculate technical losses?

  20. Daniela says:

    Congratulations, great job, thank you!

  21. shahjahan says:

    sir,i want to know where the voltage drop is more ……in transmission or distrubtion side?

  22. Thanks sir,

    I have some questions regarding losses in distribution lines.So please suggest.

  23. risha says:

    sir would u please get me the details of present day trend of heat losses in distributed transformers

  24. Amit Nigam says:

    very informative and crisp.

  25. himateja says:

    sir how to reduce the deaths from electrical wires in irrigation areas please show me the solutions

  26. sang.k says:

    thanks a lot Mr.jignesh. ur answer is totally cleared my doubts in power transmission and distribution.

  27. frances boyle says:

    dear sir i am letting you know that load losses in Brockville on. are just terriable the noise in my apartment is aweful i can not sleep because it is loud and when i have company they can not stay the noise is so loud that they get headaches i have headaches and can not have a life and i can not afford to move i have a lot of health problems and it seems to be stemming from all the losses so if you can help it would be great i live on charles st brockville on.

  28. Amruta says:

    How to imprve transmission losses

  29. Ahmed Ali says:

    thanks sir

  30. venugopal says:

    i want to share one doubt sir.we have a line having 66kV at sending end and 60kV at the receiving end.whether this reduction of voltage at receiving end will give rise to line losses?

  31. Gulshan Dev says:

    Very nice article sir


  32. Aamir Rangrej says:

    Dear Sir,

    For designing the distribution system in one small industrial area, from the following which is reliable system in terms of losses as well as economical.

    1) Step down 11 KV to 0.440 KV and distribute
    2) run one 11 kv feeder & distribute to different place by step down transformer at different place

  33. Sivaprasad says:

    how can we reduce the high negative 11kv feeder losses in distribution system.

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