Electrical Thumb Rules-Light Sources


 

Watts & Light Brightness

Incandescent Watts  CFL Watts LED Watts Lumens (Brightness)
40 8 to 12 6 to 9 400 to 500
60 13 to 18 8 to 12.5 650 to 900
75 to 100 18 to 22 13 to 15 1100 to 1750
100 23 to 30 16 to 20 1800 to 2779
150 30 to 55 25 to 28 2780

 

Minimum Lumens

Incandescent (Watt) CFL , Halozan , LED (Minimum Lumen)
25 Watt 200
40 Watt 450
60 Watt 800
75 Watt 1100
100 Watt 1600
150 Watt 2700

 

Wattage Comparison Chart

Incandescent
/
Halogens
Mercury Vapor Metal    Halide High
Pressure
Sodium
Compact
Fluorescent
(CFLs)
Light
Emitting Diodes
(LEDs)
40 to 60 15 to 25 5 to 15 5 to 15 12 to 15 5 to 8
60 to 75 25 to 35 15 to 25 15 to 25 15 to 18 7 to 10
75 to 100 35 to 45 20 to 35 20 to 35 18 to 23 10 to 15
100 to 150 50 to 60 25 to 40 25 to 40 23 to 35 15 to 20
150 to 200 70 to 85 35 to 45 35 to 45 30 to 45 20 to 25
200 to 250 90 to 110 40 to 55 40 to 55 45 to 60 25 to 30

 

Luminous efficacy

Light type Typical luminous efficacy (lumens/watt)
Tungsten incandescent light bulb 12.5 to17.5 lm/W
Halogen lamp 16 to 24 lm/W
Fluorescent lamp 45 to 75 lm/W
LED lamp 30 to 90 lm/W
Metal halide lamp 75 to 100 lm/W
High pressure sodium vapor lamp 85 to 150 lm/W
Low pressure sodium vapor lamp 100 to 200 lm/W
Mercury vapor lamp 35 to 65 lm/W

 

Selection parameter of LED Bulbs

Parameter Average Good Best
Lumens/Watt 75 90 100
Power Factor 0.7 0.8 0.9
CRI 60 70 80
LED Life in Hours 15000 25000 50000

 

Available CRI of Various Lighting Sources

Source CRI
Incandescent / Halogens >95
T8 Linear Fluorescent 75 to 85
Cool White Linear Fluorescent 62
Compact  Fluorescent 82
Metal   Halide 65
High Pressure Sodium (HPS) 22
LED 80 to 98

 

Color Accuracy – CRI Chart

CRI Rating
>90 Great
80 to 90 Very Good
70 to 80 Good
60 to 70 Good
40 to 60 Poor

 

Color Temperature & CRI Chart

Kelvin Light Effect CCT CRI
< 3600K Incandescent Fluorescent (IF) 2750 89
< 3600K Deluxe warm white (WWX) 2900 82
< 3600K Warm white (WW) 3000 52
3200K to 4000K White (W) 3450 57
3200K to 4000K Natural white (N) 3600 86
Above 4000 K Light white (LW) 4150 48
Above 4000 K Cool white (CW) 4200 62
Above 4000 K Daylight (D) 6300 76
Above 4000 K Deluxe Daylight (DX) 6500 88
Above 4000 K Sky white 8000 88

 

Color Temperature & CRI

Lighting source Color Temperature Color Rendering Index
High Pressure Sodium Lamp 2100K 25
Incandescent Lamp 2700K 100
Tungsten Halogen Lamp 3200K 95
Tungsten Halogen Lamp 3200K 62
Clear Metal Halide Lamp 5500K 60
Natural Sun Light 5000K to 6000K 100
Day Light Bulb 6400K 80

 

Lighting Source CCT

Source Color temperature in Kelvin
Skylight (blue sky) 12,000 – 20,000
Average summer shade 8000
Light summer shade 7100
Typical summer light (sun + sky) 6500
Daylight fluorescent 6300
Xenon short-arc 6400
Overcast sky 6000
Clear mercury lamp 5900
Sunlight (noon, summer, mid-latitudes) 5400
Design white fluorescent 5200
Special fluorescents used for color evaluation 5000
Daylight photoflood 4800 – 5000
Sunlight (early morning and late afternoon) 4300
Bright White Deluxe Mercury lamp 4000
Sunlight (1 hour after dawn) 3500
Cool white fluorescent 3400
Photoflood 3400
Professional tungsten photographic lights 3200
100-watt tungsten halogen 3000
Deluxe Warm White fluorescent 2950
100-watt incandescent 2870
40-watt incandescent 2500
High-pressure sodium light 2100
Sunlight (sunrise or sunset) 2000
Candle flame 1850 – 1900
Match flame 1700
Skylight (blue sky) 12,000 – 20,000
Average summer shade 8000
Light summer shade 7100
Typical summer light (sun + sky) 6500
Daylight fluorescent 6300
Xenon short-arc 6400
Overcast sky 6000
Clear mercury lamp 5900
Sunlight (noon, summer, mid-latitudes) 5400
Design white fluorescent 5200
Special fluorescents used for color evaluation 5000
Daylight photoflood 4800 – 5000
Sunlight (early morning and late afternoon) 4300
Bright White Deluxe Mercury lamp 4000
Sunlight (1 hour after dawn) 3500
Cool white fluorescent 3400
Photoflood 3400
Professional tungsten photographic lights 3200
100-watt tungsten halogen 3000
Deluxe Warm White fluorescent 2950
100-watt incandescent 2870
40-watt incandescent 2500
High-pressure sodium light 2100
Sunlight (sunrise or sunset) 2000
Candle flame 1850 – 1900
Match flame 1700

 

CCT – Correlated Color Temperature

Kelvin Associated Effects Type of Bulbs Appropriate Applications
2700° Warm White, Very Warm White Incandescent bulbs Homes, Libraries, Restaurants
3000° Warm White mostly halogen lamps, Slightly  whiter  than ordinary incandescent lamps Homes, Hotel rooms and Lobbies, Restaurants, retail Stores
3500° White Fluorescent or CFL Executive offices, public reception areas, supermarkets
4100° Cool White Office, classrooms, mass merchandisers, showrooms
5000° Daylight Fluorescent or CFL Graphic industry, hospitals
6500° Cool Daylight Extremely  white‘ Jewelry stores, beauty salons, galleries, museums, printing

 

Average Life Cycle

Source Average Life
Incandescent / Halogens 1,000 to 4,000 hours
CFL 6,000 hours
LED 15,000 to 50,000 hrs

 

Lamp Properties

Option Life (hrs) Efficacy (lpw) CRI Color of light
LED 35,000-50,000 30-300 ≥70 White
High Pressure Sodium 20,000-24,000 50-110 ≤40 Orange
Metal Halide 6,000-15,000 72-76 75-90 White
Mercury Vapor 16,000-24,000 30-50 40-60 Blue-White
Fluorescent 10,000-24,000 40-140 20-80 White

 

Illuminance Levels for Signage Lighting

Light Intensity Foot candles Lux
Low 10 to 20 100 to 200
Medium 20 to 40 200 to 400
High 40 to 80 400 to 800

 

Types of Lamp Technologies

Type of Lamp Luminous

Efficacy

(lm/W)

Color

Rendering

Properties

Lamp life in

Hrs.

Lamp life in

Hrs.

High Pressure

Mercury Vapor (MV)

 

35-36 lm/W Fair 10000-15000

 

High energy use, poor lamp life
Metal Halide (MH) 70-130 lm/W Excellent 8000-12000 High luminous efficacy, poor lamp life
High Pressure

Sodium Vapor

(HPSV)

 

50-150 lm/W Fair 15000-24000 Energy-Efficient, poor color rendering

 

Low Pressure

Sodium Vapor

(LPSV)

 

100-190

lm/W

 

Very Poor 18000-24000 Energy-Efficient, very poor color rendering

 

Low Pressure

Mercury

Fluorescent Tubular

Lamp (T12 & T8)

 

30-90 lm/W Good 5000-10000 Poor lamp life, medium energy use, only available in low wattages

 

EE Fluorescent

Tubular Lamp (T5)

 

100-120

lm/W

 

Very Good 15000-20000 long lamp life, only available in low wattages

 

Light Emitting

Diode (LED)

 

70-160 lm/W Good 40000-90000 High energy savings, low O&M, long life, no

mercury, high

 

 

Comparison of Lamp Technology

Technology Mercury Vapor High Pressure Sodium Vapor Induction New Ceramic Induction New Ceramic LED
Description Older Very Common white light  HID light source Most common HID light source used in street lighting White light electrode less light source with long operating life White light HID technology White-light, solid-state light source
Pros Low initial cost Low initial cost maintenance-free White light Small size
Longer lamp life Longer lamp life High efficacy Longer lamp life Very long time life
White light High lamp efficacy (70-150) lumens/watt) Excellent color rendering index High lamp efficacy (115) lumens/watt) Switching has no effect on life
Sudden failure are uncommon Instant start and restrike operations High fixture efficiency Contains no mercury
No flickering, strobing or  noise low ambient  temperature operations
Low temperature operations High lumens efficacy
No flickering, strobing or  noise
Instant start and restrike operations
Cons Poor lamp efficacy (34-58) lumens/watt) Low CRI High initial cost High price High price
Low fixture efficiency Contains mercury Low lamp efficacy (36-64 ) lumens/watt) Lower luminaire efficacy Low luminous flux
Contains mercury Contains mercury Higher electricity consumption CRI can be low
Contains mercury Risk of glare

 

Restrick Rate of Bulbs

HID lamp type Time to reach 80% light output Time to Restrike
Mercury 5-7 min 3-6 min
Metal halide 2-4 min 10-15 min
High-pressure sodium 3-4 min 1 min

 

Mounting Height of Light according to Types of Bulbs

HID lamp type Watt Mounting Height
Mercury 100 Watt 8 Meter
175 Watt 10 Meter
250 Watt 15 Meter
400 Watt 23 Meter
1000 Watt 30 Meter
Metal halide 70 Watt 7 Meter
100 Watt 10 Meter
175 Watt 16 Meter
250 Watt 20 Meter
400 Watt 25 Meter
1000 Watt 35 Meter
High-pressure sodium 35 Watt 6 Meter
50 Watt 7 Meter
70 Watt 8 Meter
100 Watt 12 Meter
175 Watt 18 Meter
250 Watt 25 Meter
400 Watt 30 Meter
1000 Watt 38 Meter

 

Various Lamp Comparison

As per CPWD

Lamp type Range Luminous LUX Efficacy (lm/W) Average  Life (hr) Color Rendering (Ra)
CFL    18W-36W 1200-2900 60-80 15000 75-85
Fluorescent-T5 28W-54W 2900-4850  90-104 24000  80-90
Fluorescent-T8   18W-36W 750-3250 50-90 20000 80-85
Fluorescent-T12  20W-40W 950-2450  48-61 12000 50-75
Halogen  50W 1200 24 2000 75-90
Metal halide 70W-250W 5300-25000 76-100 12000 70-90
High pressure sodium vapor 70W-1000W 5600-130000 80-130 20000 20-65
Low pressure sodium vapor 55W-135W 8100-32000 100-230 20000 20-65
Induction lamp 70W-150W 6500-12000 80-95 100000 65-90
LED     3W-120W 750-14000 80-100 80000 65-90

 

Lamp Comparison As per CPWD

Lamp type LED (Warm White) LED (Cool  White) T5 Lamp CFL Lamp HPSV  Lamp Metal Lamp Halide
CRI 80-85 75 85 85 22 60-90
Efficiency in lm/w 80 132 90 70 95-110 65-70
Usable lm/w 55-65 >100 75-85 50-60 55-65 35-40
Life (Hrs.) 50k+ 50k+ 30k 8-10k 24k 10k-20K

 

Quick Reference-Fire Fighting (Part-2)


Size of the Mains for Fire Fighting as per Type of Building ( IS 3844 )

Mains of Fire Fighting Type of Building Building Height
100 mm single outlet landing valves I) Residential buildings (A)
a) Lodging housing 15 Meter to 45 Meter
b) Dormitory 15 Meter to 45 Meter
c) Family private dwellings 15 Meter to 45 Meter
d) Apartment houses 15 Meter to 45 Meter
e) With shopping area not exceeding 250 m2 15 Meter to 45 Meter
f) Hotel buildings up to 3 star grade 15 Meter to 24 Meter and area not exceeding 600 m2 per floor
100 mm single outlet landing valves II) Educational buildings (B)  Above 15 m but not exceeding 35 m
101 mm single outlet landing valves III) Institutional buildings (C)  Above 15 m but not exceeding 35 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves a) For hospitals and sanatorium with beds not exceeding 100no’s Above 15 m but not exceeding 25 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves b) For custodial places and mental institutions  Above 15 m but not exceeding 35 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves  IV) Assembly buildings (D) Above 15 m but not exceeding 24 m and total floor area not exceeding 500 m2/floor
100 mm single outlet landing valves V) Business buildings (E) Above I5 m but not exceeding 24m
100 mm single outlet landing valves VI) Mercantile buildings (F)  Above 15m but not exceeding 24 m
100 mm single outlet landing valves VII) Industrial buildings (G) Above 15 m but not exceeding 24 m
150mm with twin outlet landing VIII) All buildings classified  under(I) To (IV)  Above 45 m
150mm with twin outlet landing  IX) All buildings classified  under( v) above with shopping area not exceeding 250 m2  Above 24 m
150mm with twin outlet landing X) All buildings classified under (vi) above Above 24 m and area exceeding 600 m2
150mm with twin outlet landing XI) Hotel buildings of  4 star and 5 star grade Above 15 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XII) All buildings classified under II and III above Above 25 m/35 m as applicable
150mm with twin outlet landing XIII) All buildings classified under IV above Above 25 m and area exceeding 500m2/floor
150mm with twin outlet landing XIV) All buildings classified under V above Above 24 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XV) All buildings classified under VI above Above 24 m but not exceeding 35 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XVI) All buildings classified under VII above Above 24 m but not exceeding 35 m
150mm with twin outlet landing XVII) All storage buildings (H) Above 10 m but not exceeding 24 m

 

As per (IS 3844)

Type of Riser Internal hydrants form part of any of the following systems
a) Dry-riser system,
b) Wet-riser system,
c) Wet-riser-cum-down-comer system
d) Down-comer system.
Dry-Riser System ( for Cold Region ) Dry-riser main system can be installed in buildings under Group A (iI, ii, ii, iv ), where the height of building is above 15 m but not exceeding 24 m up to terrace level and where the water supply for firefighting is immediately available either through the underground water storage tank/tanks or through water mains/town’s main
Dry-riser system does not include hose reel, hose cabinets, fire hose and branch pipes.
Wet-Riser System Wet-riser system should be provided in the types of buildings according to the provision mentioned. The system should consist of a pipe or  number of pipes depending on the area and height of the buildings permanently charged with water under pressure with landing valves, hose reel, hose, branch pipe, etc, at every floor level
A provision of pressure differential switch to start the pump automatically, so that water under pressure is advisable for operational hydrant, hose reels, etc, as soon as the water is drawn from hydrant landing valves causing drop in pressure. The system also incorporates a stand-by pump to come into operation automatically when the normal power supply source fails.
The distribution of wet-riser installation in the building should be so situated as not to be farther than 30 m from any point in the area covered by the hydrant and at a height of 0.75 m to 1 m from the floor. The rising mains should not be more than 50 m apart in horizontal.
Fire service inlet with gate and non-return valve to charge the riser in the event of failure of the static pump directly from the mobile pump of the tie services should: be provided on the wet-riser system. The, fire service inlet for 100 mm internal diameter rising main should have collecting head with 2 numbers of 63 mm inlets and for 150 mm rising main, collecting head with 4 numbers of 63 mm inlets should be provided.
For wet-risers down-comer system, two pumps of different capacities one for the wet-riser and the other for down-comer system should be installed. The pumps should be fed from normal source of power supply and also by an alternative source in case of failure of normal source.
For a wet-riser system, two automatic pumps should be installed to independently feed the wet riser main, one of which should act as stand-by, each pump being supplied by a different source of power. The pump shall be arranged so that when acting as duty-pump, operate automatically when one or more hydrant is opened thus causing a drop in pressure. The stand-by pump should be arranged to operate automatically in case of failure of the duty pump. The system should have an interlocking arrangement so that only one of the pumps operate at a time.
Wet-Riser-cum-Down-Comer A wet-riser-cum-down-comer system should be provided in the type of buildings indicated in Table 1 of IS 3844 according to the provision mentioned.
Priming of the main pump and terrace pump in case of wet-riser-cum-down, or both the pumps in case of wet-riser installation, should be automatic. This can be achieved either by having flooded suction, or by a priming tank with foot valve arrangement. However, a flooded suction is preferable.
Down-Comer System Single headed landing valve, connected to a 100 mm diameter pipe taken from the terrace pump delivery should be provided at each floor/landing, A hose reel conforming to IS 884 : 1985 and directly tapped from the down-comer pipe should also be provided on each floor/landing.

 

As per ( IS 3844 )

Riser The position of risers should be located within lobby approach staircase or within, the staircase enclosure when there is no lobby. However, the risers or the landing valves connected
Landing Valve Landing valves should be installed on each floor level and on the roof, if accessible, in such
a way that control line of landing valve is 1 to 1.2 m above the floor level.
Fire Hoses In buildings with basements, the internal hydrants as well as the hose reel installations should be extended to cover the basement area also, over and above sprinkler system, as necessary. .
Fire hoses should be of sufficient length to, carry water from the nearest source of water supply to the most distant point in the area covered by a hydrant, by the normal route of travel. For each internal hydrant ( single headed ), there should be a total length of not less than.30 m of 63 mm conforming to Type A of IS 636 : 1988 or provided in two lengths of not more than 15 m each wire wound with coupling together with branch pipe conforming to IS 2871 : 1983
Such spare hoses also should be in length of not more than 15 m complete with coupling. Hoses and accessories should be kept in hose cabinet painted fire red and constructed preferably of wood with glass front
Hose Box Unless impracticable by structural considerations, the landing valves should always be housed in hose boxes. Such hose boxes should be made of MS plates of 2 mm minimum thickness with glass front. The size of the box should be adequate to accommodate single/double headed landing valves with 2 or 4 lengths of fire hose each of 15 m length, and one or two branch pipes. The hose reel may or may not be accommodated inside the hose box.
Building fitted with wet-riser/wet-riser-down-comer mains should, have access roads to within 6 m from the boundary line of the building and the nearest wet-riser stack should not be more than 15 m from the boundary line of the building.
Hose Reels In addition to wet-riser systems, first aid hose reels should be installed on all floors of buildings above 15 m in height. The hose reel should be directly taken from the wet-riser pipe by means of a 37 mm socket and pipe to which the hose reel is to be attached.
The hose reel should be sited at each floor level, staircase, lobby or mid-landing adjacent to, exits in corridors in such a way that the nozzle of the hose can be taken into every room and within 6 m of any part of a room keeping in view the layout and obstructions. Tbe doors provided for the hose reel recesses should he capable of opening to approximately 180”. when installation is in open areas, the position should be above head height and the nozzle retainer and tbe inlet valve should be at about 900 mm above floor level.
Air Valve To allow any trapped air in the rising main to escape when water is pressurized into system,air release valve should be incorporated above the highest outlet of each main.
External Hydrant For external hydrants, piping (water main ) should be laid preferably underground, to avoid it getting damaged by moving vehicles, etc. To avoid rusting, underground pipes should be either of cast iron conforming to IS 1536 in which case it should be properly treated with a coat of primary paint with two coats of bitumen paint. The pipes should be properly supported of pedestals – not more than 3 m apart. Underground pipes should be laid 1 m below to avoid damage during road repair, etc, and at road crossings where heavy vehicles are expected to pass, it should pass
Jockey Pump For bigger buildings or major installations, where chance of such leakage is very considerable, it is desirable to install a small pump ( using a small motor and 200/300 liter/min pump ) with pressure switches for automatic start and stop.
Using Wet-Riser System Pump for Partial Sprinkler System In main high rise buildings, the basement is used for car parking/housing transformers/or storages and other floors may be used as shopping areas departmental stores, etc, the total area used for such purpose being small, in such cases, the same wet-riser pump may be used for feeding the sprinkler system provided that:
a)the total area of the basement to be protected is less than 500 m2.
b) the total area utilized as shops departmental stores is less than 1000 m2.
c)the pump has a capacity of at least 2850 l/min with suitable motor.

 

AS per IS 15301

Foundation of Pump Pumps are to be mounted on a concrete foundation having minimum M grade of reinforced concrete as M15..
The thickness of the foundation shall be 50 mm minimum for small pumps up to 900 Liter/min capacity, 75 mm for pumps up to 2280 liter/min capacity and 100 liter/min for bigger pumps up to 4 500 liter/min. For extra ordinary big pumps, the thickness may go up to 150 mm. The size of the foundation shall cover the full length and width of the pump and at least 150 mm on the front and back of the pump and 75 mm on the sides as clearance.
Pump Room Location Normally, pump rooms shall be located 6 m away from all surrounding buildings and overhead structures
 Where this is not feasible, they may be attached to a building provided a perfect separation wall having 4 hour fire rating is constructed between the pump room and the attached building, the roof of the pump room is of RCC construction atleast 100 mm thick and access to the pump room is from the outside. The pump rooms shall normally have brick/concrete walls and noncombustible roof with adequate lighting, ventilation and drainage arrangements.
Transformer cubicles inside the sub-stations shall be separated from H.T. and L.T. cubicles and from each other by walls of brick/stone/concrete blocks or 355 mm thickness or of RCC of 200 mm thickness with door openings, if any, therein being protected by single fireproof doors having 2-hour fire resistance
Transformers installed outdoors, which are supplying power to fire pump shall also be located at least 6 m away from all surrounding buildings including sub-station or D.G. House, Where this is not feasible, all door and window openings of the building within 6 m of the transformers] shall be protected by single fireproof doors and 6 mm thick wired glasses in steel
framework respectively.

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group A – Residential Buildings – Above 15 m in height  (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required A3- Dormitories, A4- Apartments Houses A5- Hotels
Fire Safety 15 Mts To 35 Mts 35 Mts To  45 Mts 45 Mts To 60 Mts Above 60 Mts 15 Mts To  30 Mts Above 30 Mts and A6 Hotels (Starred)
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 25,000 liters capacity 5,000 liters (5,000 liters if basement) 10,000 liters capacity 25,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank Not Required 75,000 liters capacity 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity 2,00,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump 900 LPM at Terrace level Tank Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank Not Required 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 1620 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required Required Required Required Required
Down Comer System Required Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Not Required Required Required Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Not Required Not Required Required Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Not Required Not Required Not Required Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required if area of basement exceeds 200 Sq.mts Required if area of basement exceeds 200 Sq.mts Required Required Required Required

 

Requirements of Fire Safety for Group B – Educational Buildings of above 15 mts in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required  B-1 Schools up to Senior Secondary Level 
B-2 All others/training Institutions  (Ground + One Storey)
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor. Depending up on the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 25000 Liters Capacity
Under Ground Water Tank Not required
Terrace Fire Pump 900 LPM
Fire Pump near Under Ground Water Tank Not required
Hose Reel Assembly Required
Down Comes System Required
Wet Riser System Not required
Yard Hydrant Not required
Fire Service Inlet Required
Manually  Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required
Automatic Detection and Alarm System Not required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required if area of basement exceeds 200 sq.mts

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group C – Institutional Buildings – Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required C1- Hospitals,  Sanatoria and Nursing Home C2 – Custodial Institutions
C3 – Penal and Mental Institutions
Fire Safety (Active Measures) 15 Mts not exceeding 24 Mts not exceeding 15 Mts not exceeding 24 Mts not exceeding
24  Mts 30 Mts 24 Mts 30 Mts
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 10,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 1.00,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required  Required Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group D – Assembly Buildings Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required D1 – Theater over  1000 persons, D2 up to 1000 persons  D3 – Permanent Stage over 300 persons D6 – Not exceeding 30 mtrs D7 – Elevated or underground for assembly not  covered D1-D6
D4 – up to 300 persons, D5 all others
Fire Safety 15 Mts To 24 Mts 24 Mts To 30 Mts 15 Mts not exceeding 24 Mts not exceeding
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 10,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity
D1-D5, 2,00,000 liters for D6 Multiplex
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required Required Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group E – Business Buildings  Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required E1  offices, banks, professional establishments, like offices of architects, engineers, doctors, lawyers and police stations, E2 – Laboratories research establishments, libraries and test houses.  E3 – Computer installations, E4 – Telephone Exchanges,  E5
Fire Safety 15 Mts To 24 Mts 24 Mts To 30 Mts Above 30 mt
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 10,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity 20,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 75,000 liters capacity 1,00,000 liters capacity 2,00,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2850 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required  Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group F Mercantile Building  Above 15 m in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection Required F1  – Shops, Stores up to 500 Sq.m, F3 – Underground shopping centre and  Storage
F2 – Shops, Stores more than 500 Sq. mtrs.
Fire Safety (Active Measures) 15 Mts To 24 Mts 24 Mts To 30 Mts
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 10,000 liters capacity 10,000 liters capacity 10,000 liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank 1,00,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity 1,50,000 liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump Not required Not Required Not Required
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 2 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Required Required Required
Down Comer System Not Required Not Required Not Required
Wet Riser System Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Required Required Required
Manually Fire Call Point (MCP) Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required Required Required

 

Requirement of the Fire Safety for Group G Industrial Buildings  Above 15 m in height not to be permitted 18 Mts in height (IS 3844)

Type of Fire Protection G1  – Low Hazard Industries G2 – Moderate Hazard Industries
BUILT UP AREA
Fire Safety Up to 100 Sq.mt More than  100 Sq.mt. & up to 500 Sq.mt More than 500 Sq.mtrs Up to 100Sq.mtrs More than  100Sq.mtrs and up to 500 Sq.mtrs More than  500Sq.mtrs and up to 1000 Sq.mtrs Up to 1000 Sq.mt
Fire Extinguishers Minimum 2 per floor Depending upon the Area and Travel Distance
Terrace Level Over Head Tank 5000 liters in case of basement area exceeds 200m2 5000 liters add 5000 liters if the provision of sprinkler in basement 10,000 liters capacity 10,000 Liters capacity 10,000 Liters capacity 20,000 Liters capacity 20,000 Liters capacity
Under Ground Water Tank Not required Not required 1,00,000 liters Not required Not required 75,000 Liters capacity 1,00,000 Liters capacity
Terrace Fire Pump 450 LPM 450 LPM 450 LPM 900 LPM 900 LPM 900 LPM 900 LPM
Fire Pump near Under Group Water Tank Not required Not required 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM Not required Not required 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM 1 electric pump & 1 Diesel pump of capacity 2280 LPM & Jockey Pump 180 LPM
Hose Reel Assembly Not required Required Required Required Required Required Required
Down Comer System Not required Required Required Not required Not required Required Required
Wet Riser System Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Yard Hydrant Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Fire Service Inlet Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Manually Operated Fire Alarm Call Point (MCP) Not required Not required Not Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Automatic Detection & Alarm System Not required Not required Required Not Required Not Required Required Required
Automatic Sprinkler System Required (if there is basement) Required (if there is basement) Required Required Required Required Required

Quick Reference-Fire Fighting (Part-1)


 

Class of Fire

CLASS Type of Fire Type of Fire Extinguisher
Class A Fires involving Paper, Wood, Textile, Packing materials and the like. Water, foam, ABC dry power and halocarbons.
Class B Fires involving Oil, Petrol, Solvent, Grease, Paints, Celluloid and the like. Foam, dry powder, clean agent and carbon dioxide extinguishers
Class C Fires involving Electrical Hazards, Motor Vehicle Gaseous substance under pressure. Dry powder, clean agent and carbon dioxide extinguishers
Class D Fires involving Chemicals, Metal and active like

Magnesium ,titanium

Extinguishers with special dry powder for metal tires

 

Area covered by Fire Extinguisher (NBC)

Type of Fire Extinguishers Coverage (Floor) Area
Water/ Sand Bucket 100 sq.mt.
Sprinklers 6 sq.mt.
Extinguishers (9 Liter) 600 sq.mt.
Heat Detectors 16 sq.mt.
Hydrant Riser (Outlet 100 mm dia with landing valve and First aid hose reel) 930 sq.mt
Smoke Detectors 50 sq.mt.

 

Water Requirement for the Fire Fighting (AS per NBC)

Q = 3000 P
Q = Fire demand in Liters/Minutes
P = Population in Thousands
Note:  The above rate must be maintained at a minimum pressure of 1 to 1.5 kg / cm2 for at least four hours.

 

Water Requirement for Wet Riser/Down Corner System (As per NBC -TABLE 4)

Residential Buildings U.G. Water Storage Tank Static Terrace Tank
15 m to 30 m 50,000 lts 10,000 lts
30 m to 45 m 1,00,000 lts 20,000 lts
Above 45 m 2,00,000 lts 40,000 lts

 

Water Requirement for Wet Riser/Down Corner System (As per NBC -TABLE 5)

Business Building U.G. Water Storage Tank Static Terrace Tank
15 m to 30 m 100000 lts (50000 lts if covered area in G.F is less than 300sq.m.) 20,000 lts
30 m to 45 m 20000 lts 20,000 lts
Above 45 m 250000 lts 50,000 lts

 

Classification of fire Pumps (As per IS 15301)

Pump Size Location of Pump Installation
450 Liter/Min Pumps to be installed on the terrace to feed the Down Comer System.
900 Liter/Min Pumps to be installed on the terrace to feed the Down Comer System.
2280 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.
2850 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.
4500 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.
For special risks 6700 Liter/Min Pumps are to be housed in the pump house.

 

Suction and Delivery Pipe Sizes (IS 3844)

Pump Size Pump Location Suction Delivery
450 Liter/min Terrace 50 mm 50 mm
 900 Liter/min Terrace 75 mm 50 mm
1400 Liter/min Terrace 100 mm 100 mm
2280 Liter/min Fire Pump 150 mm 150 mm
2850 Liter/min Fire Pump 200 mm 150 mm
4500 Liter/min Fire Pump 250 mm 200 mm
6700 Liter/min Fire Pump 250 mm 200 mm

 

Different Types of Fire Extinguishers for Different Classes of Fires ( IS 2190 )

Type of Extinguisher IS Type of Fires
Class A Class B Class C Class D
water type (gas cartridge) IS 940 , IS 13385 S NS NS NS
water type (stored pressure) IS 6234 S NS NS NS
mechanical foam type (gas cartridge) IS 10204, IS 13386 S S NS NS
mechanical foam type (stored pressure)  IS 14951,IS 15397 S S NS NS
dry powder type (stored pressure)  IS 13849 S S S NS
dry powder type (gas cartridge)  IS 2171 , IS 10658 S S S NS
dry powder type for metal fires  IS 11833 NS NS NS S
carbon dioxide type  IS 2878, IS 8149 NS S S NS
clean agent gas type  IS 15683 S S S NS
halon 1211 type IS 4862 , IS 11108 S S S NS

 

PRESSURE TESTING OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS  ( IS 2190 )

Type of Extinguisher IS Test Interval (Year) Test Pressure (kg/cm2) Pressure Maintained for Min. (kg/cm2)
Water type (gas cartridge) IS 940 3 35 2.5
Water type (stored pressure)  IS 6234 3 35 2.5
Water type (gas cartridge) IS 13385 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (gas cartridge)  IS 10204 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (stored pressure) IS 15397 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (gas cartridge)  IS 13386 3 35 2.5
Mechanical foam type (gas cartridge) 135 liter  IS 14951 3 35 2.5
Dry powder ( stored pressure) IS l3849 3 35 2.5
 Carbon dioxide IS 2878 5 250 2.5
 Clean agent IS 15683 3 35 2.5
Dry powder (gas cartridge) IS2171, IS10658 3 35 2.5

 

LIFE OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS ( IS 2190)

Type of Extinguisher Life Time, Year
Water type 10
Foam type 10
Powder type 10
Carbon dioxide 15
Clean agent 10

 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INSTALLATION OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS  ( IS 2190 )

Occupancy Type of Occupancy Nature of Occupancy Class of
Fire
Typical Examples
Group A Residential buildings Low Hazard CLASS A Lodging or rooming, one or two family houses, private dwellings, dormitories, apartment houses, flats, up to 4 star hotels, etc
  Low Hazard CLASS C Small kitchens having LPG connection, electrical heaters, etc
  Medium Hazard CLASS A Multi-storied buildings, multi-risk buildings, five star hotels, etc
Group B Educational buildings Low Hazard CLASS A Tutorials, vocational training institutes, evening colleges, commercial institutes
  Medium Hazard CLASS A Schools, colleges, etc
Group C Institutional buildings Medium Hazard CLASS A Hospitals, sanatoria, homes for aged, orphanage jails, etc
Group D Assembly buildings-D-1 High Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, having seating capacity of over 1 00 persons
Assembly buildings-D-2 High Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibitions halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, having seating capacity less than 1 000 persons
Assembly buildings-D-3 High Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, but having accommodation for more than 300 persons, but less than 1 000 persons, with no permanent seating arrangement
Assembly buildings-D-4 / D5 Low Hazard CLASS A Theatres, assembly halls, exhibition halls, museums, restaurants, places of worship, club rooms, dance halls, etc, but having accommodation less than 300 and those not covered under D-l to D-3
Group E Business buildings-E-1 Special Hazard CLASS A Offices, banks, record rooms, archives, libraries, data processing centers, etc
Business buildings-E-2 Medium Hazard CLASS B Laboratories, research establishment, test houses, etc
Business buildings-E-3 Special Hazard CLASS A Computer installations
Group F Mercantile buildings Medium Hazard CLASS A Shops, stores, markets, departmental stores,
underground shopping centers, etc
Group G Industrial buildings Low Hazard CLASS A Small industrial units
Medium Hazard CLASS A Corrugated carton manufacturing units, paper cane units, packing case manufacturing units, cotton waste manufacturing units
HH CLASS A Large number yards, saw mills, godowns and warehouses storing combustible materials, cold storages, freight depots, etc
Low Hazard CLASS B Demonstration chemical plants, small chemical processing plants, pilot plants, etc
Medium Hazard CLASS B Workshops, painting shops, large kitchens, industrial canteens, generator rooms, heat treatment shops, tread rubber manufacturing units, petrol bunks, tubes and Haps units, etc
High Hazard CLASS B Petroleum processing units, chemical plants, industrial alcohol plants, effluent treatment plants, etc
High Hazard CLASS C Fertilizer plants, petrochemical plants, LPG bottling plants, etc
High Hazard CLASS D All processes involving use of combustible highly flammable materials, reactive metals and alloys, including their storage
Group H Storage buildings Medium Hazard CLASS B Flammable liquid stores, storage in drums and cans in open, paints and varnishes go down
High Hazard CLASS B Tank farms, chemical and petroleum bulk storage depots, large service stations, truck and marine terminals, underground LDO/furnace oil storage yards, etc
Medium Hazard CLASS C LPG distribution godown/office, distribution storage godowns/offices of D, N, H, Argon and other industrial gases
High Hazard CLASS C Storage and handling of gas cylinders in bulk, gas plant, gas holders ( Horton), spheres, etc
Group J Hazardous Buildings used for storage, handling, manufacture and processing of highly combustible explosive materials. (Risks involved in terms of class of fire and intensity of fire has to be assessed on case to case basis and statutory authorities to be consulted, environmental factors and mutual aid facilities to be taken into account before deciding on the fire extinguisher requirements.)

 

RECOMMENDED  EQUIPMENT TO BE INSTALLED ( IS 2190 )

Class of Fire  Occupancy No of Fire Systems
CLASS A Low Hazard One 9 liter water expelling extinguisher or ABC 5 kg/6 kg fire extinguisher, for every 200 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment or floor of the building.
Medium Hazard Two 9 liter water expelling extinguishers or ABC 5 kg / 6 kg fire extinguisher, for every 200 m2 with minimum of 4 extinguishers per compartment floor.
Medium Hazard Provision as per MH occupancy; in addition to one 50 liter water CO2/25 kg ABC fire extinguisher for every 100 m2 of floor area
Special Hazard One 4.5 kg capacity carbon dioxide or one 2/3 kg capacity clean agent extinguisher for every 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers
CLASS B Low Hazard One 9 liter foam extinguisher, mechanical or BC or ABC, 5 kg/6 kg fire extinguisher, for every 200 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment or floor.
Medium Hazard Two 9 liter foam extinguisher, mechanical type, or 5/6 kg dry powder extinguisher ( or one of each type) for every 200 m2 area with minimum of four extinguisher per compartment
Medium Hazard Provision as per MH, and in addition to one 50 liter mechanical foam type extinguisher or 25 kg BC fire extinguisher for every 100 m2 or part thereof one l35 liter foam mechanical extinguisher for every 300 m2 of floor area
CLASS C Low Hazard One 2/3 kg dry powder of clean agent extinguisher for every 20 m2 of floor area
Medium Hazard One 10 kg dry powder extinguisher (stored pressure) or 6.5 kg  carbon dioxide extinguisher or 5 kg clean agent for 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof, with minimum of one extinguishers of the same type for every compartment;
High Hazard Dry powder extinguisher (stored pressure) of 10 kg or 6.5 kg CO2 extinguisher, or 5 kg clean agent extinguisher for every 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof, subject to a minimum of two extinguishers of same type per room or compartment.
CLASS D High Hazard One 10 kg dry powder extinguisher with special dry powder for metal fires for every 100 m2 of floor area or part thereof with minimum of two extinguishers per compartment/room

 

Electrical Thumb Rule- High Rise Building (As per NBC)


 

Luminous Efficacy, Life, Lumen Maintenance and Color Rendition (Table-8) NBC
Light Source  Wattage Efficacy (lm/W ) Average Life Maintenance Color Rendition
Incandescent lamps  15 to 200  12 to 20  500 to 1000  Fair to good  Very good
Tungsten halogen     300 to 1500  20 to 27  200 to 2000  Good to very good  Very good
Standard fluorescent lamps       20 to 80 55 to 65 5000 Fair to good  Good
Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)       5 to 40  60 to 70 7500 Good Good to very good
Slim line fluorescent      18 to 58 57 to 67 5000  Fair to good Good
High pressure mercury vapor lamps      60 to 1000  50 to 65 5000  Very low to fair  Federate
Blended – light lamps    160 to 250  20 to 30 5000 Low to fair  Federate
High pressure sodium vapor lamps  50 to 1000  90 to 125  10000 to 15000  Fair to good  Low to good
Metal halide lamps       35 to 2000  80 to 95 4000 to 10000 Very low  Very good
Low pressure sodium       10 to 180 100 to 200 10000 to 20000 Good to very good  Poor
LED  0.5 to 2.0  60 to 100  10000 Very good  Good for white LED

 

Approximate Cable Current Capacity

Cable Size Current Capacity MCB Size
1.5 Sq.mm 7.5 To 16 A 8A
2.5 Sq.mm 16 To 22 A 15A
4 Sq.mm 22 To 30 A 20A
6 Sq.mm 39 To 39 A 30A
10 Sq.mm 39 To 54A 40A
16 Sq.mm 54 To 72A 60A
25 Sq.mm 72 To 93A 80A
50 Sq.mm 117 To 147A 125A
70 Sq.mm 147 To 180A 150A
95 Sq.mm 180 To 216A 200A
120 Sq.mm 216 To 250A 225A
150 Sq.mm 250 To 287A 275A
185 Sq.mm 287 To 334A 300A
240 Sq.mm 334 To 400A 350A

 

Requirements  for  Physical  Protection  of Underground Cables  (As per NBC)

Protective  Element Specifications
Bricks  (a) 100 mm minimum  width 
(b) 25 mm thick 
(c) sand cushioning 100  mm  and  sand  cover 100 mm 
Concrete slabs At least 50 mm thick
Plastic  slabs (polymeric cover  strips) Fiber  reinforced plastic depending on properties  and has to be matched with the protective cushioning and cover
PVC  conduit  or  PVC  pipe  or stoneware  pipe or Hume pipe The  pipe  diameter should  be  such  so  that the  cable  is  able  to easily slip down the pipe
Galvanized pipe  The  pipe  diameter should  be  such  so  that the  cable  is  able  to easily slip down the pipe
The trench shall be back filled to cover the cable initially by 200 mm of sand fill; and then a plastic marker strip  hall be put over the full length of cable in the trench.
The marker signs shall be provided where any cable enters or leaves a building. This will identify that there is a cable located underground near the building.
 The trench shall then be completely filled. If the cables rise above ground to enter a building or other structure, a mechanical protection such as a GI pipe or PVC pipe for the cable from the trench depth to a height of 2.0 m above ground shall be provided.

 

AREA REQUIRED FOR GENERATOR IN ELECTRIC SUBSTATION (As per NBC)

Capacity  kVA Area m2 Clear Height below the Soffit of the Beam m
25 56 3.6
48 56 3.6
100 65 3.6
150 72 3.6
248 100 4.2
350 100 4.2
480 100 4.2
600 110 4.6
800 120 4.6
1010 120 6.5
1250 120 6.5
1600 150 6.5
2000 150 6.5

 

Low Voltage Cabeling for Building (As per NBC)

Low Voltage Cable Cables/wires, such as fiber optic cable, co-axial cable, etc. These shall be laid at least at a distance of 300 mm from any power wire or cable. The distance may be reduced only by using completely closed earthed metal trucking with metal separations for various kind of cable. Special care shall be taken to ensure that the conduit runs and wiring are laid properly for low voltage signal to flow through it.
The power cable and the signal or data cable may run together under floor and near the equipment. However, separation may be required from the insulation aspect, if the signal cable is running close to an un-insulated conductor carrying power at high voltage. All types of signal cables are required to have insulation level for withstanding 2 kV impulse voltages even if they are meant for service at low voltage.
Conduit Color Scheme Power conduit=Black
Security conduit=Blue
Fire alarm conduit=Red
Low voltage conduit=Brown
UPS conduit Green

 

Sub Station Guideline (As per NBC)

Substation Location Location of substation in the basement should be avoided, as far as possible.
If there is only one basement in a building, the substation/switch room shall not be provided in the basement and the floor level of the substation shall not be lowest point of the basement.
Substation shall not be located immediately above or below plumbing water tanks or sewage treatment plant (STP) water tanks at the same location
Substation Door/Shutter All door openings from substation, electrical rooms, etc, should open outwards
Vertical shutters (like rolling shutters) may also be acceptable provided they are combined with a single leaf door opening outwards for exit in case of emergency
For large substation room/electrical  room  having  multiple equipment,  two  or more  doors  shall  be provided which shall be remotely located from each other
No services or ventilation shafts shall open into substation or switch room unless specific to substation or switch room
Transformer Location In case of HV panel and transformers located at different floors or at a distance more than 20 m, HV isolator shall be  provided  at transformer end
In case transformer and main MV/LV panel room are located at different floors or are at a distance more than 20 m, MV/LV isolator shall be provided at  transformer  end
In  case  of  two  transformers  (dry  type  or transformers with oil quantity less than 2 000 liter)  located  next  to  each  other without intermittent wall, the distance between the two shall  be minimum  1 500 mm  for  11  kV, minimum 2 000 mm for 22 kV and minimum 2 500 mm for 33 kV. Beyond 33 kV, two transformers shall be separated by baffle wall of 4 h fire rating.
If dry type transformer is used, it may be located adjacent to medium voltage switchgear in the form of unit type substation. In such a case, no separate room or fire barrier for the transformer is required either between transformers or between transformer and the switchgear, thereby decreasing the room space requirement; however, minimum distances as specified.
Oil Filled Equipment (Transformer / C.B) Substations with oil-filled equipment/apparatus transformers and high voltage panels shall be either located in open or in a utility building
They shall not be located in any floor other than the ground floor or the first basement of a utility building  not be located below first basement slab of utility building.
They shall have direct access from outside the building for operation and maintenance of the equipment.
It shall be separated from the adjoining buildings including the main building by at least 6 m clear distance to allow passage of fire tender between the substation/utility building and adjoining building/main building.
Substation equipment having more than 2 000 liter of oil whether located indoors in the utility building or outdoors shall have  baffle walls  of  4  h  fire  rating between apparatus.
Provision of  suitable oil soak-pit, and where use of more than 9 000 liter of oil in any one oil tank, receptacle or chamber is involved, provision shall be made for the draining away or removal of any oil which may leak or escape from the tank, receptacle or chamber containing the same
Power Supply Voltage supply  is  at  240  V  single  phase  up  to  5  kVA, 415/240 V 3-phase from 5 kVA to 100 kVA, 11 kV (or 22 kV) for loads up to 5 MVA and 33 kV or 66 kV for consumers of connected load or contract demand more than 5 MVA.
In case of connected load of 100 kVA and above, the relative advantage of high voltage three-phase supply should be considered.
In case of single point high voltage metering, energy meters shall  be  installed  in  building  premise,such a place which is readily accessible to the owner/operator of the building and the Authority. The supplier or owner of the installation shall provide at the point of commencement of supply a suitable isolating device fixed in a conspicuous position at not more than 1.7 m above the ground so as to completely isolate the supply to the building in case of emergency
Trench Drain In case of cable trench in substation/HV switch room/MV switch room, the same shall be adequately drained to ensure no water is stagnated at any time with live cables.

 

Fence for Substation Enclose any part of the substation which is open to the air, with a fence (earthed efficiently at both ends) or wall not less than 1800 mm (preferably not less than 2400 mm) in height

 

HV Distribution in Building The power supply HV cables voltage shall not be more than 12 kV and a separate dedicated and  fire  compartmented  shaft  should  be provided for carrying such high voltage cables to upper floors in a building. These shall not be mixed with any other shaft and suitable fire detection and suppression measures shall be provided throughout the length of the cable on each floor.

 

Switch Room / MV switch room Switch room / MV switch room shall be arrived at considering 1200 mm clearance requirement from top of the equipment to the below of the soffit of the beam .In case cable entry/exit is from above the  equipment  (transformer,  HV switchgear, MV  switchgear),  height  of substation room/HV switch room/MV switch room shall also take into account requirement of space for turning radius of cable above the equipment height.

 

 

 

 

 

Calculate Motor Pump Size


  • Calculate Size of Pump having following Details
  • Static Suction Head(h2)=0 Meter
  • Static Discharge Head (h1)=50 Meter.
  • Required Amount of Water (Q1)=300 Liter/Min.
  • Density of Liquid (D) =1000 Kg/M3
  • Pump Efficiency (pe)=80%
  • Motor Efficiency(me)= 90%
  • Friction Losses in Pipes (f)=30%

Calculations:

  • Flow Rate (Q) =Q1x1.66/100000 =300×1.66/100000= 0.005 M3/Sec
  • Actual Total Head (After Friction Losses) (H) = (h1+h2)+((h1+h2)xf)
  • Actual Total Head (After Friction Losses) (H)=50+(50×30%)= 65 Meter.
  • Pump Hydraulic Power (ph) = (D x Q x H x9.87)/1000
  • Pump Hydraulic Power (ph) = (1000 x 0.005 x 65 x9.87)/1000 =3KW
  • Motor/ Pump Shaft Power (ps)= ph / pe = 3 / 80% = 4KW
  • Required Motor Size: ps / me =4 / 90% = 4.5 KW
  • Required Size of Motor Pump = 4.5 HP or 6 HP

Calculate Size of Cable for Motor (As NEC)


NEC Code 430.22 (Size of Cable for Single Motor):

  • Size of Cable for Branch circuit which has Single Motor connection is 125% of Motor Full Load Current Capacity.
  • Example: what is the minimum rating in amperes for Cables supplying 1 No of 5 hp, 415-volt, 3-phase motor at 0.8 Power Factor. Full-load currents for 5 hp = 7Amp.
  • Min Capacity of Cable= (7X125%) =8.75 Amp.

 NEC Code 430.6(A) (Size of Cable for Group of Motors or Elect. Load).

  • Cables or Feeder which is supplying more than one motors other load(s), shall have an ampacity not less than 125 % of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor plus the sum of the full-load current ratings of all the other motors in the group, as determined by 430.6(A).
  • For Calculating minimum Ampere Capacity of Main feeder and Cable is 125% of Highest Full Load Current + Sum of Full Load Current of remaining Motors.
  • Example:what is the minimum rating in amperes for Cables supplying 1 No of 5 hp, 415-volt, 3-phase motor at 0.8 Power Factor, 1 No of 10 hp, 415-volt, 3-phase motor at 0.8 Power Factor, 1 No of 15 hp, 415-volt, 3-phase motor at 0.8 Power Factor and 1 No of 5hp, 230-volt, single-phase motor at 0.8 Power Factor?
  • Full-load currents for 5 hp = 7Amp.
  • Full-load currents for 10 hp = 13Amp.
  • Full-load currents for 15 hp = 19Amp.
  • Full-load currents for 10 hp (1 Ph) = 21Amp.
  • Here Capacity wise Large Motor is 15 Hp but Highest Full Load current is 21Amp of 5hp Single Phase Motor so 125% of Highest Full Load current is 21X125%=26.25Amp
  • Min Capacity of Cable= (26.25+7+13+19) =65.25 Amp.

 NEC Code 430.24 (Size of Cable for Group of Motors or Electrical Load).

  • As specified in 430.24, conductors supplying two or more motors must have an ampacity not less than 125 % of the full-load current rating of the highest rated motor +  the sum of the full-load current ratings of all the other motors in the group or on the same phase.
  •  It may not be necessary to include all the motors into the calculation. It is permissible to balance the motors as evenly as possible between phases before performing motor-load calculations.
  • Example:what is the minimum rating in amperes for conductors supplying 1No of 10 hp, 415-volt, 3-phase motor at 0.8 P.F and 3 No of 3 hp, 230-volt, single-phase motors at 0.8 P.F.
  • The full-load current for a 10 hp, 415-volt, 3-phase motor is 13 amperes.
  • The Full-load current for single-phase 3 hp motors is 12 amperes.
  • Here for Load Balancing one Single Phase Motor is connected on R Phase Second in B Phase and third is in Y Phase.Because the motors are balanced between phases, the full-load current on each phase is 25 amperes (13 + 12 = 25).
  • Here multiply 13 amperes by 125 %=(13 × 125% = 16.25 Amp). Add to this value the full-load currents of the other motor on the same phase (16.25 + 12 = 28.25 Amp).
  • The minimum rating in amperes for conductors supplying these motors is 28 amperes.

 NEC 430/32 Size of Overload Protection for Motor:

  • Overload protection (Heater or Thermal cut out protection) would be a device that thermally protects a given motor from damage due to heat when loaded too heavy with work.
  • All continuous duty motors rated more than 1HP must have some type of an approved overload device.
  • An overload shall be installed on each conductor that controls the running of the motor rated more than one horsepower. NEC 430/37 plus the grounded leg of a three phase grounded system must contain an overload also. This Grounded leg of a three phase system is the only time you may install an overload or over – current device on a grounded conductor that is supplying a motor.
  • To Find the motor running overload protection size that is required, you must multiply the F.L.C. (full load current) with the minimum or the maximum percentage ratings as follows;

Maximum Overload

  • Maximum overload = F.L.C. (full load current of a motor) X allowable % of the maximum setting of an overload,
  • 130% for motors, found in NEC Article 430/34.
  • Increase of 5% allowed if the marked temperature rise is not over 40 degrees or the marked service factor is not less than 1.15.

Minimum Overload

  • Minimum Overload = F.L.C. (full load current of a motor) X allowable % of the minimum setting of an overload,
  • 115% for motors found in NEC Article 430/32/B/1.
  • Increase of 10% allowed to 125% if the marked temperature rise is not over 40 degrees or the marked service factor is not less than 1.15

 

How to Design efficient Street lighting-(Part-6)


(3) Light trespass:

  • Light trespass is condition when spill (Unwanted or Unneeded) light from a streetlight or floodlight enters a window and illuminates an indoor area.

 How to Reduce Trespass

  • Select luminaries, locations, and orientations to minimize spill light onto adjacent properties.
  • Use well-shielded luminaries.
  • Keep floodlight aiming angles low so that the entire beam falls within the intended lighted area.

 Difference between full cutoffs and fully shielded:

  • The full cutoff has is luminaries that have no direct up light (no light emitted above horizontal) and 10% of light intensity between 80° and 90°.
  • The term full cutoff is often substituted for the term fully shielded.
  • The both terms are not equivalent. Fully shielded luminaires emit no direct up light, but have no limitation on the intensity in the region between 80° and 90°
  • Luminaires that are full cutoff, cutoff, semi cutoff, and non cutoff , may also qualify as fully shielded.

1

  • There is also a confusing assumption that a luminaire with a flat lens qualifies as a full cutoff luminaries. While this may be true or not in some Lighting Fixtures case.

1

  • Fully shielded means, a lighting fixture constructed in such a manner that the bulb should be fully recessed into Fixture so that all light is directed downward below the horizontal.
  • The fixture is angled so the lamp is not visible below the barrier (no light visible below the horizontal angle).

(G) Selection of Luminas:

(1) Types of Lighting Source

  • Street Lights are mostly Low-pressure sodium (LPS), High-pressure sodium (HPS), Metal halide and Light emitting diodes (LED).
  • LPS is very energy efficient but emits only a narrow spectrum of pumpkin-colored light that some find to be undesirable.
  • LPS is an excellent choice for lighting near astronomical observatories and in some environmentally sensitive areas.
  • HPS is commonly used for street lighting in many cities. Although it still emits an orange-colored light, its coloring is more “true to life” than that of LPS.
  • Where it’s necessary to use white light, there are metal halide and LEDs.

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  • High-pressure sodium lamps should be used for expressways, main roads, secondary roads and branch roads.
  • Low-power metal halide lamps should be used in mixed traffic roads for motor vehicles and pedestrians in residential areas.
  • Metal halide lamps can be used for motor vehicle traffic, such as city centers and commercial centers, which require high color identification.
  • Metal halide lamps, CFL lamps are used at Pedestrian streets in industrial areas, sidewalks in residential areas, and sidewalks on both sides of motorway traffic.
  • LED streetlights are more durable, longer lasting, efficiency, dimmable capacity and cost effective than traditional lights.
  • LED also enhances public safety by delivering superior visible light while providing the environmental advantage of using less energy.

 (2) Color Rendering Index (CRI):

  • CRI Measures the ability of the artificial light to show or reproduce the colors of the road or objects on the road, relative to a natural light source.
  • The natural light source (the sun) has CRI of 100. The higher
  • This index the better the visibility will be. For all types of road CRI ≥ 70 is recommended.

(3) Efficacy

  • At the low end LED efficacy starts at 70 lumens per watt (lm/W) and reaches as high as 150 lm/W.
  • While the mean efficacy for outdoor area fixtures is slightly lower than common indoor fixtures such as troffers and linear lighting about 100 lm/W for area lights compared to about 110 lm/W for troffers and linear fixtures this difference is not significant. It may be the result of outdoor area lights requiring more precise luminous intensity distributions and other factors unique to outdoor lighting.

(4) Fixture Protection:

  • When using sealed road lighting, the protection level of the light source cavity should not be lower than IP54.
  • For roads and places with dangerous environmental pollution and heavy maintenance, the protection level of the light source cavity should not be lower than IP65.
  • The degree of protection of the lamp electrical appliance cavity should not be lesser than IP43.
  • Lamps with excellent corrosion resistance should be used in areas or places with high levels of corrosive gases such as acid and alkali in the air.

(H) Effective Road Lighting:

  • Sufficient illumination.
  • Good uniformity.
  • No Glare.
  • Low consumption.
  • No Color Temperature abnormalities
  • No Zebra effect
  • Shielded lighting to ensure light is pointed downwards
  •  Completely uniform illuminance.
  • No requirement for over lighting to obtain sufficient average illumination.
  • Absence of glare.
  • Absence of low angle radiation that causes sky glow.
  • Control of light trespass.
  • High redundancy.

 Effective Lightning

Features Benefits
Proper pole height & spacing  Provide uniform light distribution
Proper Luminaire aesthetics  Blends in with the surroundings
Good maintenance Reduce problems in lightning
High lamp efficiency  Minimize energy cost
Life of Luminaire Reduce lamp replacement cost
Good color rendering  Helps object appear more natural
Proper light distribution  Provide required light on roads
Cost effectiveness  Lowers operating cost
Minimizing light pollution & glare  Reduce energy use

 

Effective Energy-efficient Street Lighting Systems (NYSERDA, 2002)

Features Benefits
Proper pole height and spacing Provides uniform light distribution, which improves appearance for safety and security Meets recommended light levels Minimizes the number of poles, reducing energy and maintenance costs
Proper luminaire aesthetics Blends in with the surroundings
High lamp efficacy and Luminaire efficiency Minimizes Energy cost
Life of the luminaire and other components Reduces lamp replacement costs
Cost effectiveness Lowers operating cost
High Lumen Maintenance Reduces lamp replacement costs
Good color rendering Helps object appear more natural and pleasing to the public Allows better recognition of the environment, improves security
Short lamp Re strike Allows the lamp to quickly come back after a power interruption
Proper light distribution Provides required light on the roads and walkways
Proper Cutoff Provides adequate optical control to minimize light pollution
Minimizing light pollution and Glare Reduces energy use
Automatic Shutoff Saves energy and maintenance costs by turning lamps off when not needed

 

Minimum Value of Street Light Designing

Descriptions Min Value
Watt 400
Lumens Per Watt 80 To 140
Voltage 230Volt
Frequency 50 To 60Hz
Power Factor   More than 95
THD  < 20%
Life Hours 70,000 hours
Color Temperature 4000K  To  5000K
CRI More than 75
Beam Angle / Beam Pattern  Type 2,3,4,5
Operating Temperature (-)25°C To (+)50°C
Working Humidity 10% To 90% RH
IP Rating  IP67
Dimmable 0-10V
Optic Lens Material High Polycarbonate (PMMA)
Forward Current >600mA
Housing IP65 – Aluminum Alloy and PC Lens
Dimension  18.23″ X 13.58″ X 4.57″
Weight  15.30 lbs – 34.39 lbs
Warranty 10 Years
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