March 1, 2014 3 Comments
- There are two types of Losses in transmission and distribution Line.
- (1) Technical Losses and
- (2) Commercial Losses.
- It is necessary to calculate technical and commercial losses.Normally Technical Losses and Commercial Losses are calculated separately .Transmission (Technical) Losses are directly effected on electrical tariff but Commercial losses are not implemented to all consumers.
- Technical Losses of the Distribution line mostly depend upon Electrical Load, type and size of conductor, length of line etc.
- Let’s try to calculate Technical Losses of one of following 11 KV Distribution Line
- 11 KV Distribution Line have following parameter.
- Main length of 11 KV Line is 6.18 Kms.
- Total nos. of Distribution Transformer on Feeder 25 KVA= 3 No, 63 KVA =3 No,100KVA=1No.
- 25KVA Transformer Iron Losses = 100 W, Copper Losses= 720 W, Average LT Line Loss= 63W.
- 63KVA Transformer Iron Losses = 200 W, Copper Losses= 1300 W, Average LT Line Loss= 260W.
- 100KVA Transformer Iron Losses = 290 W, Copper Losses= 1850 W, LT Line Loss= 1380W.
- Maximum Amp is12 Amps.
- Unit sent out during to feeder is 490335 Kwh
- Unit sold out during from Feeder is 353592 Kwh
- Normative Load diversity Factor for Urban feeder is 1.5 and for Rural Feeder is 2.0
Total Connected Load=No’s of Connected Transformer.
- Total Connected Load= (25×3) + (63×3) + (100×1).
- Total Connected Load=364 KVA.
Peak Load = 1.732 x Line Voltage x Max Amp
- Peak Load = 1.732x11x12
- Peak Load =228 KVA.
Diversity Factor (DF) = Connected Load (In KVA) / Peak Load.
- Diversity Factor (DF) = 364 /228
- Diversity Factor (DF) =1.15
Load Factor (LF)= Unit Sent Out (In Kwh) / 1.732 x Line Voltage x Max Amp. x P.F. x 8760
- Load Factor (LF)=490335 / 1.732x11x12x0.8×8760
- Load Factor (LF)=0.3060
Loss Load Factor (LLF)= (0.8 x LFx LF)+ (0.2 x LF)
- Loss Load Factor (LLF)= ( 0.8 x 0.3060 x 0.3060 ) + (0.2 x 0.306)
- Loss Load Factor (LLF)= 0.1361
Calculation of Iron losses:
- Total Annual Iron loss in Kwh =Iron Loss in Watts X Nos of TC on the feeder X8760 / 1000
- Total Annual Iron loss (25KVA TC)=100x3x8760 /1000 =2628 Kwh
- Total Annual Iron loss (63KVA TC)=200x3x8760 /1000 =5256 Kwh
- Total Annual Iron loss (100KVA TC)=290x3x8760 /1000 =2540 Kwh
- Total Annual Iron loss =2628+5256+2540 =10424Kwh
Calculation of Copper losses:
- Total Annual Copper loss in Kwh =Cu Loss in Watts XNos of TC on the feeder LFX LF X8760 / 1000
- Total Annual Copper loss (25KVA TC)=720x3x0.3×0.3×8760 /1000 =1771 Kwh
- Total Annual Copper loss (63KVA TC)=1300x3x0.3×0.3×8760 /1000 =3199 Kwh
- Total Annual Copper loss (100KVA TC)=1850x1x0.3×0.3×8760 /1000 =1458 Kwh
- Total Annual Copper loss =1771+3199+1458=6490Kwh
HT Line Losses (Kwh)=0.105 x (Conn. Load x 2) x Length x Resistance x LLF /( LDF x DF x DF x 2 )
- HT Line Losses= 1.05 x(265×2) x 6.18 x 0.54 x 0.1361 /1.5 x 1.15 x1.15 x 2
- HT Line Losses = 831 Kwh
Peak Power Losses= (3 x Total LT Line Losses) / (PPLxDFxDFx 1000)
- Peak Power Losses= 3 x (3×63+3×260+1×1380) /1.15 x 1.15 x 1000
- Peak Power Losses= 3.0
LT Line Losses (Kwh)= (PPL.) x (LLF) x 8760
- LT Line Losses = 3 x 0.1361 x 8760
- LT Line Losses = 3315 Kwh
Total Technical Losses= (HT Line Losses + LT Line Losses + Annual Cu Losses + Annual Iron Losses)
- Total Technical Losses = ( 831+ 3315 + 10424 + 6490)
- Total Technical Losses = 21061 Kwh
% Technical Loss= (Total Losses) / (Unit Sent Out Annually) x 100
- % Technical Loss= (21061/490335) x100= 4.30%